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Edited by two renowned medicinal chemists who have pioneered the development of personalized therapies in their respective fields, this authoritative analysis of what is already possible is the first of its kind, and the only one to focus on drug development issues. Numerous case studies from the first generation of "personalized drugs" are presented, highlighting the challenges and opportunities for pharmaceutical development. While the majority of these examples are taken from the field of cancer treatment, other key emerging areas, such as neurosciences and inflammation, are also covered. With its careful balance of current and future approaches, this handbook is a prime knowledge source for every drug developer, and one that will remain up to date for some time to come. From the content: * Discovery of Predictive Biomarkers for Anticancer Drugs * Discovery and Development of Vemurafenib * Targeting Basal-Cell Carcinoma * G-Quadruplexes as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer * From Human Genetics to Drug Candidates: An Industrial Perspective on LRRK2 Inhibition as a Treatment for Parkinson's Disease * Therapeutic Potential of Kinases in Asthma * DNA Damage Repair Pathways and Synthetic Lethality * Medicinal Chemistry in the Context of the Human Genome and many more
Written by the pioneers of Viagra, the first blockbuster PDE
This first systematic treatment of the concept and practice of scaffold hopping shows the tricks of the trade and provides invaluable guidance for the reader's own projects. The first section serves as an introduction to the topic by describing the concept of scaffolds, their discovery, diversity and representation, and their importance for finding new chemical entities. The following part describes the most common tools and methods for scaffold hopping, whether topological, shape-based or structure-based. Methods such as CATS, Feature Trees, Feature Point Pharmacophores (FEPOPS), and SkelGen are discussed among many others. The final part contains three fully documented real-world examples of successful drug development projects by scaffold hopping that illustrate the benefits of the approach for medicinal chemistry. While most of the case studies are taken from medicinal chemistry, chemical and structural biologists will also benefit greatly from the insights presented here.
Tailored to the needs of scientists developing drugs, chemicals, cosmetics and other products this one-stop reference for medicinal chemists covers all the latest developments in the field of predictive toxicology and its applications in safety assessment. With a keen emphasis on novel approaches, the topics have been tackled by selected expert scientists, who are familiar with the theoretical scientific background as well as with the practical application of current methods. Emerging technologies in toxicity assessment are introduced and evaluated in terms of their predictive power, with separate sections on computer predictions and simulation methods, novel in vitro systems including those employing stem cells, toxicogenomics and novel biomarkers. In each case, the most promising methods are discussed and compared to classical in vitro and in vivo toxicology assays. Finally, an outlook section discusses such forward-looking topics as immunotoxicology assessment and novel regulatory requirements. With its wealth of methodological knowledge and its critical evaluation of modern approaches, this is a valuable guide for toxicologists working in pharmaceutical development, as well as in safety assessment and the regulation of drugs and chemicals.
The first professional reference on this highly relevant topic, for drug developers, pharmacologists and toxicologists. The authors provide more than a systematic overview of computational tools and knowledge bases for drug metabolism research and their underlying principles. They aim to convey their expert knowledge distilled from many years of experience in the field. In addition to the fundamentals, computational approaches and their applications, this volume provides expert accounts of the latest experimental methods for investigating drug metabolism in four dedicated chapters. The authors discuss the most important caveats and common errors to consider when working with experimental data. Collating the knowledge gained over the past decade, this practice-oriented guide presents methods not only used in drug development, but also in the development and toxicological assessment of cosmetics, functional foods, agrochemicals, and additives for consumer goods, making it an invaluable reference in a variety of disciplines.
Written for drug developers rather than computer scientists, this monograph adopts a systematic approach to mining scientifi c data sources, covering all key steps in rational drug discovery, from compound screening to lead compound selection and personalized medicine. Clearly divided into four sections, the first part discusses the different data sources available, both commercial and non-commercial, while the next section looks at the role and value of data mining in drug discovery. The third part compares the most common applications and strategies for polypharmacology, where data mining can substantially enhance the research effort. The final section of the book is devoted to systems biology approaches for compound testing. Throughout the book, industrial and academic drug discovery strategies are addressed, with contributors coming from both areas, enabling an informed decision on when and which data mining tools to use for one's own drug discovery project.
Chemokines are hormone-like signaling molecules secreted by cells to signal infection and guide the immune response. Following a decade of basic chemokine research, the pharmaceutical industry has now begun to exploit this crucial signaling pathway for the development of innovative drugs against AIDS, cancer, neural and autoimmune diseases. Here is the first reference focusing on these novel drug development opportunities. Opening with a general introduction on chemokine function and chemokine receptor biology, the second part covers the known implications of these signaling molecules in human diseases, such as cancer, neural disorders, and viral infection, including AIDS. The third part systematically surveys current drug development efforts at targeting individual chemokine receptors, as well as other chemokine interaction partners, including up-to-date reports from the pharmaceutical industry.
In this comprehensive two-volume resource on the topic senior lead generation medicinal chemists present a coherent view of the current methods and strategies in industrial and academic lead generation. This is the first book to combine both standard and innovative approaches in comparable breadth and depth, including several recent successful lead generation case studies published here for the first time. Beginning with a general discussion of the underlying principles and strategies, individual lead generation approaches are described in detail, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, along with all relevant bordering disciplines like e.g. target identification and validation, predictive methods, molecular recognition or lead quality matrices. Novel lead generation approaches for challenging targets like DNA-encoded library screening or chemical biology approaches are treated here side by side with established methods as high throughput and affinity screening, knowledge- or fragment-based lead generation, and collaborative approaches. Within the entire book, a very strong focus is given to highlight the application of the presented methods, so that the reader will be able to learn from real life examples. The final part of the book presents several lead generation case studies taken from different therapeutic fields, including diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, neuroscience, infection and tropical diseases. The result is a prime knowledge resource for medicinal chemists and for every scientist involved in lead generation.
Closing a gap in the scientific literature, this first comprehensive introduction to the topic is based on current best practice in one of the largest pharmaceutical companies worldwide. The first chapters trace the development of our understanding of drug metabolite toxicity, covering basic concepts and techniques in the process, while the second part details chemical toxicophores that are prone to reactive metabolite formation. This section also reviews the various drug-metabolizing enzymes that can participate in catalyzing reactive metabolite formation, including a discussion of the structure-toxicity relationships for drugs. Two chapters are dedicated to the currently hot topics of herbal constituents and IADRs. The next part covers current strategies and approaches to evaluate the reactive metabolite potential of new drug candidates, both by predictive and by bioanalytical methods. There then follows an in-depth analysis of the toxicological potential of the top 200 prescription drugs, illustrating the power and the limits of the toxicophore concept, backed by numerous case studies. Finally, a risk-benefit approach to managing the toxicity risk of reactive metabolite-prone drugs is presented. Since the authors carefully develop the knowledge needed, from fundamental considerations to current industry standards, no degree in pharmacology is required to read this book, making it perfect for medicinal chemists without in-depth pharmacology training.
The discovery and use of medicines is just as fascinating a human scientific endeavor as space flight or the tracing of human evolution. It is also the everyday task of hundreds of thousands of pharmacists, pharmaceutical chemists and researchers worldwide. Based on his profound knowledge of past and present paradigms in the development of medicines, Enrique Ravina takes the reader from the very beginnings of pharmacology to the multibillion-dollar business it represents today. Recounting the often spectacular successes and failures of innovative drugs as well as the people who discovered them, he brings abstract science to life in anecdotal form. For anyone with a more than superficial interest in the science of drugs and all those interested in knowing how drugs have been developed, how they have reached us, and became part of our daily life. This book is beautifully illustrated, containing many rare and historical photographs of drugs and their discoverers, and abounds with references to the primary literature, listing seminal publications alongside more modern reviews for readers seeking further details. With a Foreword by Hugo Kubinyi
The only reference on current methods to generate pharmacokinetic
and safety profiles of drug candidates, as well as how they must be
balanced against one other for the best selection of candidates for
This reference handbook is the first to provide a comprehensive
overview, systematically characterizing all known transporters
involved in drug elimination and resistance. Combining recent
knowledge on all known classes of drug carriers, from microbes to
man, it begins with a look at human and mammalian transporters.
This is followed by microbial, fungal and parasitic transporters
with special attention given to transport across those
physiological barriers relevant for drug uptake, distribution and
The gold standard for industrial research now completely revised in
line with current trends in the field, with all contributions
extensively updated or rewritten.
This one-stop reference is the first to present the complete
picture -- covering all relevant organisms, from single cells to
mammals, as well as all major disease areas, including neurological
disorders, cancer and infectious diseases.
Innovative and forward-looking, this volume focuses on recent achievements in this rapidly progressing field and looks at future potential for development. The first part provides a basic understanding of the factors governing protein-ligand interactions, followed by a comparison of key experimental methods (calorimetry, surface plasmon resonance, NMR) used in generating interaction data. The second half of the book is devoted to insilico methods of modeling and predicting molecular recognition and binding, ranging from first principles-based to approximate ones. Here, as elsewhere in the book, emphasis is placed on novel approaches and recent improvements to established methods. The final part looks at unresolved challenges, and the strategies to address them. With the content relevant for all drug classes and therapeutic fields, this is an inspiring and often-consulted guide to the complexity of protein-ligand interaction modeling and analysis for both novices and experts.
Fueled by the expertise of a team of international specialist
authors, this first reference on the booming topic covers
everything a drug researcher needs to know about targeting
epigenetic mechanisms of disease.
This practice-oriented handbook surveys current knowledge on the
prediction and prevention of adverse drug reactions related to
off-target activity of small molecule drugs. It is unique in
collating the current approaches into a single source, and includes
several highly instructive case studies that may be used as
guidelines on how to improve drug development projects.
Backed by leading authorities, this is a professional guide to successful compound screening in pharmaceutical research and chemical biology, including the chemoinformatic tools needed for correct data evaluation. Chapter authors from leading pharmaceutical companies as well as from Harvard University discuss such factors as chemical genetics, binding, cell-based and biochemical assays, the efficient use of compound libraries and data mining using cell-based assay results.
For both academics and professionals in the pharma and biotech industries working on small molecule screening.
Nuclear receptors are the site of action for some of the most
widely used medications, namely oral contraceptives and related
drugs derived from steroid hormones. Recent research has uncovered
their pivotal role in a range of human diseases, including diabetes
and metabolic syndrome, triggering a new wave of drug discovery
efforts focused on this class of molecular targets.
Tailored to the needs of medicinal and natural products chemists, the second edition of this unique handbook brings the contents up to speed, almost doubling the amount of chemical information with an additional volume. As in the predecessor, a short introductory section covers the theoretical background and evaluates currently available instrumentation and equipment. The main part of the book then goes on to systematically survey the complete range of published microwave-assisted synthesis methods from their beginnings in the 1990s to mid-2011, drawing on data from more than 5,000 reports and publications. Throughout, the focus is on those reactions, reagents and reaction conditions that work, and that are the most relevant for medicinal and natural products chemistry. A much expanded section is devoted to combinatorial, high-throughput and flow chemistry methods.
Written with the practicing medicinal chemist in mind, this is the first modern handbook to systematically address the topic of bioisosterism. As such, it provides a ready reference on the principles and methods of bioisosteric replacement as a key tool in preclinical drug development. The first part provides an overview of bioisosterism, classical bioisosteres and typical molecular interactions that need to be considered, while the second part describes a number of molecular databases as sources of bioisosteric identification and rationalization. The third part covers the four key methodologies for bioisostere identification and replacement: physicochemical properties, topology, shape, and overlays of protein-ligand crystal structures. In the final part, several real-world examples of bioisosterism in drug discovery projects are discussed. With its detailed descriptions of databases, methods and real-life case studies, this is tailor-made for busy industrial researchers with little time for reading, while remaining easily accessible to novice drug developers due to its systematic structure and introductory section.
From its origins as a niche technique more than 15 years ago, fragment-based approaches have become a major tool for drug and ligand discovery, often yielding results where other methods have failed. Written by the pioneers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications of fragment-based discovery, as well as an outlook on where the field is headed. The first part discusses basic considerations of when to use fragment-based methods, how to select targets, and how to build libraries in the chemical fragment space. The second part describes established, novel and emerging methods for fragment screening, including empirical as well as computational approaches. Special cases of fragment-based screening, e. g. for complex target systems and for covalent inhibitors are also discussed. The third part presents several case studies from recent and on-going drug discovery projects for a variety of target classes, from kinases and phosphatases to targeting protein-protein interaction and epigenetic targets.
Drug discovery is all about finding small molecules that interact in a desired way with larger molecules, namely proteins and other macromolecules in the human body. If the three-dimensional structures of both the small and large molecule are known, their interaction can be tested by computer simulation with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Alternatively, if active ligands are already available, molecular similarity searches can be used to find new molecules. This virtual screening can even be applied to compounds that have yet to be synthesized, as opposed to "real" screening that requires cost- and labor-intensive laboratory testing with previously synthesized drug compounds. Unique in its focus on the end user, this is a real "how to" book that does not presuppose prior experience in virtual screening or a background in computational chemistry. It is both a desktop reference and practical guide to virtual screening applications in drug discovery, offering a comprehensive and up-to-date overview. Clearly divided into four major sections, the first provides a detailed description of the methods required for and applied in virtual screening, while the second discusses the most important challenges in order to improve the impact and success of this technique. The third and fourth, practical parts contain practical guidelines and several case studies covering the most important scenarios for new drug discovery, accompanied by general guidelines for the entire workflow of virtual screening studies. Throughout the text, medicinal chemists from academia, as well as from large and small pharmaceutical companies report on their experience and pass on priceless practical advice on how to make best use of these powerful methods.
This first systematic overview for more than a decade is tailor-made for the medicinal chemist. All the chapters are written by experienced drug developers and include practical examples from real drug candidates. Following an introduction to global drug properties and their impact on drug research, screening and combinatorial chemistry libraries, this handbook demonstrates the best and fastest way to estimate those properties most relevant for the efficiency and pharmacokinetic performance of a drug molecule: lipophilicity, solubility, electronic properties and conformation
In this new edition of a bestseller, all the contents have been brought upto- date by addressing current standards and best practices in the assessment and prediction of ADMET properties. Although the previous chapter layout has been retained, substantial revisions have been made, with new topics such as pro-drugs, active metabolites and transporters covered in detail in a manner useful to the Drug Discovery scientist. The authors discuss the parameters and processes important for the absorption, distribution and retention of drug compounds in the body, plus the potential problems created by their transformation into toxic byproducts. Uniquely comprehensive, the book relates physicochemistry and chemical structure to pharmacokinetic properties and ultimately drug efficacy and safety. While aimed at all those dealing professionally with the development and application of pharmaceutical substances, the readily comprehensible style makes this book equally suitable for students of pharmacy and related subjects.
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