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The prospect of simultaneously achieving a `greener' environment, increased tax revenues and lower levels of unemployment has made ecological taxes an increasingly popular proposition. This volume examines the possibility of ecological tax reform in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The potential for ecological tax reform is investigated on a theoretical and an empirical level. The social costs associated with environmental taxes are analysed and the impacts of a Swedish carbon tax are calculated by means of a static numerical model. Taxes on carbon, nitrogen and fertilisers are also examined. The authors find that the level of unemployment cannot be decreased by revenue neutral environmental taxes without any social costs and conclude that there are no easy ways to achieve full employment, a budget surplus and environmental sustainability. They conclude that further understanding of the functioning of the labour market, household decisions and the link between change in pollutant emissions and environmental damage is needed in order to make more concrete suggestions concerning ecological tax reforms. Green Taxes will be of immense use to academics and practitioners in the field of environmental economics.
Marine resources and fish stocks are now high on the international and economic research agendas, and the management of highly complex marine ecosystems is increasingly important. The task is complicated by the number of interlinked factors to be taken into account, such as social impacts, drainage systems, marine currents and the ecosystems involved. This interdisciplinary volume presents a comprehensive blueprint for managing a sea. Focused on the Baltic Sea, it employs a range of methods and techniques, including nutrient budgets and simulation models, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), economic valuation and policy analysis, to arrive at an assessment of causes and consequences of pollution in the sea and the management of its resources. From the analysis of data on land use, population, costs of nutrient reductions and associated impacts, it presents significant and highly practical empirical and policy results. It diagnoses the causes of marine degradation, identifies through the use of simulation models cost-effective strategies for remediation and sets out the policies to be pursued collectively by the countries around the sea to restore and manage their common resource. This is an exemplary study in the application of ecological economics to complex natural resource systems. It will be of interest to students, researchers and professionals working on any aspect of marine ecosystem management.
More than a billion people cannot get safe drinking water; half the world's population does not have adequate sanitation; within a generation over three billion will be suffering from water stress. This text analyzes the issues in this crisis of management and shows how water can be used effectively and productively. The key to sustainable water resources is an integrated approach. The authors assert that careful planning and concerted action can make the fundamental changes needed and that the implications of not dealing with the crisis are immense. The book comes with a CD ROM containing background research and scenarios.
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