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Alignment phenomena are characteristic of liquid crystalline materials, and understanding them is critically important in understanding the essential features and behavior of liquid crystals and the performance of Liquid Crystal Devices (LCDs). Furthermore, in LCD production lines, the alignment process is of practical importance. Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices demonstrates both the fundamental and practical aspects of alignment phenomena in liquid crystals. The physical basis of alignment phenomena is first introduced in order to aid the understanding of the various physical phenomena observed in the interface between liquid crystalline materials and alignment layer surfaces. Methods for the characterization of surfaces, which induce the alignment phenomena, and of the alignment layer itself are introduced. These methods are useful for the research of liquid crystalline materials and devices in academic research as well as in industry. In the practical sections, the alignment methods used in the LCD production lines are introduced with various other trials for the alignment technologies. LCD performances are also discussed in relation to alignment phenomena. The authors have a wide range of experience in both academic research and in industry. This book will be of interest to researchers and engineers working in the LCD industry, and for physics and chemistry researchers studying liquid crystalline materials.
The Gods have been fighting a never-ending war with the Giants and their strength is failing. One evening, during a terrible storm, Thor, the God of Thunder, appears to Erik, an ordinary boy. He sends Erik on a secret mission with his daughter, Trud, to travel to the Land of the Dead. Erik must bring back the Goddess of Eternal Life and her magic apples before the Gods weaken and totally lose their powers. Time is running out. Can Erik rescue the Goddess from the Giants and prevent the end of the world?
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