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Understanding Research with Children and Young People (Paperback, New): Alison Clark, Rosie Flewitt, Martyn Hammersley, Martin... Understanding Research with Children and Young People (Paperback, New)
Alison Clark, Rosie Flewitt, Martyn Hammersley, Martin Robb
R914 R793 Discovery Miles 7 930 Save R121 (13%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

How do views about children shape research concerned with their lives? What different forms can research with children take? What ethical issues does it involve? How does it impact on policy and practice, and on the lives of children themselves? This book helps you to understand how research is designed and carried out to explore questions about the lives of children and young people. It tackles the methodological, practical and ethical challenges involved, and features examples of actual research that illustrate: Different strategies for carrying out research Common challenges that arise in the research process Varying modes of engagement that researchers can adopt with participants and audiences; and The impact that research can have on future studies, policy and practice.

The Radicalism of Ethnomethodology - An Assessment of Sources and Principles (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley The Radicalism of Ethnomethodology - An Assessment of Sources and Principles (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley
R2,151 R1,938 Discovery Miles 19 380 Save R213 (10%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

There have been relatively few well-informed, critical assessments of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. This book examines some of the background to these approaches, notably the influence of Schutz and phenomenology. It also compares Garfinkel's approach with those of Goffman and Simmel, and assesses the influence of Cicourel and conversation analysis on research methodology. The core of the book is an in-depth assessment of the rationale for ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, and of their relationship to mainstream social science. While the importance of the issues that these epistemologically and ontologically radical approaches raise is underlined, a number of fundamental problems are identified with the rationale underpinning them. -- .

The Myth of Research-Based Policy and Practice (Paperback): Martyn Hammersley The Myth of Research-Based Policy and Practice (Paperback)
Martyn Hammersley
R1,083 R926 Discovery Miles 9 260 Save R157 (14%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Martyn Hammersley's provocative new text interrogates the complex relationship between research, policymaking and practice, against the background of the evidence-based practice movement. Addressing a series of probing questions, this book reflects on the challenge posed by the idea that social research can directly serve policymaking and practice.

Key questions explored include:

- Is scientific research evidence-based?

- What counts as evidence for evidence-based practice?

- Is social measurement possible, and is it necessary?

- What are the criteria by which qualitative research should be judged?

The book also discusses the case for action research, the nature of systematic reviews, proposals for interpretive reviews, and the process of qualitative synthesis.

Highly readable and undeniably relevant, this book is a valuable resource for both academics and professionals involved with research.

The Limits of Social Science - Causal Explanation and Value Relevance (Paperback): Martyn Hammersley The Limits of Social Science - Causal Explanation and Value Relevance (Paperback)
Martyn Hammersley
R1,003 R862 Discovery Miles 8 620 Save R141 (14%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

What forms of knowledge can social science claim to produce? Does it employ causal analysis, and if so what does this entail? What role should values play in the work of social scientists?

These are the questions addressed in this book. They are closely interrelated, and the answers offered here challenge many currently prevailing assumptions. They carry implications both for research practice, quantitative or qualitative, and for the public claims that social scientists make about the value of their work.

The arguments underpinning this challenge to conventional wisdom are laid out in detail in the first half of the book. In later chapters their implications are explored for two substantive areas of intrinsic importance: the study of social mobility and educational inequalities; and explanations for urban riots, notably those that took place in London and other English cities in the summer of 2011.

Ethics in Qualitative Research - Controversies and Contexts (Paperback): Martyn Hammersley, Anna Traianou Ethics in Qualitative Research - Controversies and Contexts (Paperback)
Martyn Hammersley, Anna Traianou
R1,030 R884 Discovery Miles 8 840 Save R146 (14%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

All social researchers need to think about ethical issues. Their salience has recently been increased by the pressures of ethical regulation, particularly in the case of qualitative research. But what are ethical issues? And how should they be approached? These are not matters about which there is agreement. Ethics in Qualitative Research explores conflicting philosophical assumptions, the diverse social contexts in which ethical problems arise, and the complexities of handling them in practice. The authors argue that the starting point for any discussion of research ethics must be the values intrinsic to research, above all the commitment to knowledge-production. However, the pursuit of inquiry is rightly constrained by external values, and the book focuses on three of these: minimising harm, respecting autonomy, and protecting privacy. These external values are shown to be far from unequivocal in character, often in conflict with one another (or with the commitments of research), and always subject to situational interpretation and practical judgment. Nevertheless, it is contended that in the present challenging times it is essential that qualitative researchers uphold research values. Martyn Hammersley is Professor of Educational and Social Research at The Open University. Anna Traianou is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Educational Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London.

Methodology: Who Needs It? (Paperback): Martyn Hammersley Methodology: Who Needs It? (Paperback)
Martyn Hammersley
R1,007 R866 Discovery Miles 8 660 Save R141 (14%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

The literature on social science methods and the issues surrounding them has grown massively and continues to increase. Yet many social scientists are ambivalent about methodology. For some, it plays a central, perhaps even an all-encompassing, role; while, for others, it is desirable only in small amounts, or indeed is regarded as an irrelevance, as a distraction from actually doing research. In this book, Hammersley argues that, in large part, this reflects and is part of a wider problem: the gradual decline of a previously influential academic model of inquiry. This has occurred as a result of ideological challenges and the erosion of the institutional conditions that support academic work. He defends this model, spelling out the demands it places upon social scientists, and examining such issues as the proper role of methodology, the nature of objectivity, the false idea that social scientists should be intellectuals or social critics, the dialectic of academic discussion, the ethics of belief, and the limits of academic freedom. More broadly, he also questions the role of the social research within society and what it means to be a social scientist in the 21st century. Hammersley's book is engagingly written and controversial. It tackles the major issues of contemporary social research methodology head on and is an essential read for anyone with an interest in this field.

Understanding Research with Children and Young People (Hardcover, New): Alison Clark, Rosie Flewitt, Martyn Hammersley, Martin... Understanding Research with Children and Young People (Hardcover, New)
Alison Clark, Rosie Flewitt, Martyn Hammersley, Martin Robb
R2,776 R2,304 Discovery Miles 23 040 Save R472 (17%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

How do views about children shape research concerned with their lives? What different forms can research with children take? What ethical issues does it involve? How does it impact on policy and practice, and on the lives of children themselves? This book helps you to understand how research is designed and carried out to explore questions about the lives of children and young people. It tackles the methodological, practical and ethical challenges involved, and features examples of actual research that illustrate: Different strategies for carrying out research Common challenges that arise in the research process Varying modes of engagement that researchers can adopt with participants and audiences; and The impact that research can have on future studies, policy and practice.

Ethics in Qualitative Research - Controversies and Contexts (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley, Anna Traianou Ethics in Qualitative Research - Controversies and Contexts (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley, Anna Traianou
R3,181 R2,630 Discovery Miles 26 300 Save R551 (17%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

All social researchers need to think about ethical issues. Their salience has recently been increased by the pressures of ethical regulation, particularly in the case of qualitative research. But what are ethical issues? And how should they be approached? These are not matters about which there is agreement. Ethics in Qualitative Research explores conflicting philosophical assumptions, the diverse social contexts in which ethical problems arise, and the complexities of handling them in practice. The authors argue that the starting point for any discussion of research ethics must be the values intrinsic to research, above all the commitment to knowledge-production. However, the pursuit of inquiry is rightly constrained by external values, and the book focuses on three of these: minimising harm, respecting autonomy, and protecting privacy. These external values are shown to be far from unequivocal in character, often in conflict with one another (or with the commitments of research), and always subject to situational interpretation and practical judgment. Nevertheless, it is contended that in the present challenging times it is essential that qualitative researchers uphold research values. Martyn Hammersley is Professor of Educational and Social Research at The Open University. Anna Traianou is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Educational Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London.

Educational Research and Evidence-based Practice (Paperback, New): Martyn Hammersley Educational Research and Evidence-based Practice (Paperback, New)
Martyn Hammersley
R965 R834 Discovery Miles 8 340 Save R131 (14%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Combining classic articles that have been key markers in recent debates with some new material, this book addresses the problems involved in educational research and the issues surrounding its contribution to policymaking and practice. The authors examine the diverse approaches within qualitative research and address some of the key areas which have attracted criticism. They consider what role research should play and examine the case for randomised controlled trials and for action research. The book is suitable for any undergraduate or postgraduate student concerned with educational research methodology, as well as those focusing on educational policy and practice, and students doing PhDs and EdDs.

Ethnography - Principles in Practice (Paperback, 4th New edition): Martyn Hammersley, Paul Atkinson Ethnography - Principles in Practice (Paperback, 4th New edition)
Martyn Hammersley, Paul Atkinson
R1,084 R955 Discovery Miles 9 550 Save R129 (12%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Now in its fourth edition, this leading introduction to ethnography has been thoroughly updated and substantially rewritten. The volume offers a systematic introduction to ethnographic principles and practice, and includes a new chapter on 'Ethnography in the digital world'. The authors argue that ethnography is best understood as a reflexive process. This requires recognition that social research is part of the world that it studies, and demands that researchers reflect on how they shape both data and analysis. Starting in Chapter 1 with an outline of the principle of reflexivity, against the background of competing research philosophies, the authors go on to discuss the main features of ethnographic work, including: the selection and sampling of cases the problem of access field relations and observation interviewing the use of documents recording and organizing data the process of data analysis and writing research reports. There is also consideration of the ethical issues involved in ethnographic research. Throughout, the discussion draws on a wide range of illustrative material from classic and more recent studies, within a global context. The new edition of this popular textbook will be an indispensable resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for all researchers using ethnographic methods in the social sciences and the humanities.

The Radicalism of Ethnomethodology - An Assessment of Sources and Principles (Paperback): Martyn Hammersley The Radicalism of Ethnomethodology - An Assessment of Sources and Principles (Paperback)
Martyn Hammersley
R555 Discovery Miles 5 550 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

There have been relatively few well-informed, critical assessments of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. This book examines some of the background to these approaches, notably the influence of Schutz and phenomenology. It also compares Garfinkel's approach with those of Goffman and Simmel, and assesses the influence of Cicourel and conversation analysis on research methodology. The core of the book is an in-depth assessment of the rationale for ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, and of their relationship to mainstream social science. While the importance of the issues that these epistemologically and ontologically radical approaches raise is underlined, a number of fundamental problems are identified with the rationale underpinning them. -- .

Life in School - The Sociology of Pupil Culture (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley, Peter Woods Life in School - The Sociology of Pupil Culture (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley, Peter Woods
R2,513 Discovery Miles 25 130 Ships in 10 - 15 working days

There can be little doubt that pupils' own interpretations of what happens in their schools represent a crucial link in the educational chain. We need to understand how pupils respond to different forms of pedagogy and school organization, and why they respond in the ways they do, in order to increase the effectiveness of our schooling. In the ten years prior to first publication ethnographic studies of pupils in schools had increased in number and importance. They had come to represent a leading area of inquiry which is still of relevance to practising and student teachers today. However, this material was not easily accessible, being widely distributed across educational and sociological journals and books. Originally published in 1984, this book collects together significant contributions to the field in a single volume, and will still be of relevance to practising and trainee teachers, and students of sociology and education.

The Concept of Culture - A History and Reappraisal (Paperback, 1st ed. 2019): Martyn Hammersley The Concept of Culture - A History and Reappraisal (Paperback, 1st ed. 2019)
Martyn Hammersley
R1,468 Discovery Miles 14 680 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

While the term 'culture' has come to be very widely used in both popular and academic discourse, it has a variety of meanings, and the differences among these have not been given sufficient attention. This book explores these meanings, and identifies some of the problems associated with them, as well as examining the role that values should play in cultural analysis. The development of four, very different, conceptions of culture is traced from the nineteenth century onwards: a notion of aesthetic cultivation associated with Matthew Arnold; the evolutionary view of culture characteristic of nineteenth-century anthropology; the idea of diverse cultures characteristic of twentieth and twenty-first century anthropology; and a conception of culture as a process of situated meaning-making - found today across anthropology, sociology, and cultural studies. These conceptions of culture are interrogated, and a reformulation of the concept is sketched. This book will be of interest to students and scholars across a variety of fields, including anthropology, sociology, cultural studies, and education.

Troubling Sociological Concepts - An Interrogation (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2020): Martyn Hammersley Troubling Sociological Concepts - An Interrogation (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2020)
Martyn Hammersley
R2,662 Discovery Miles 26 620 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Sociology addresses challenging social issues and seeks new ways to understand them. However, much sociological terminology suffers from multiple, vague, or uncertain meanings. This is true of many of the central terms that sociologists use, such as 'power', 'ideology', 'culture', 'social class', and even 'society'. The result is that the conclusions reached by sociological investigations are frequently subject to discrepant interpretations, and their validity is difficult to assess. The chapters in this book address several of the key terms employed by sociologists, examining the concepts associated with them in depth - from both an historical and an analytical perspective. The aim is not to develop an entirely new framework but rather to document the various meanings associated with these terms, and to suggest ways in which they could be refined or developed for the purposes of sociological analysis. Since the concepts addressed are of wide relevance, Troubling Sociological Concepts will be of interest and use to researchers and students across the social sciences.

Methodology: Who Needs It? (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley Methodology: Who Needs It? (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley
R3,132 R2,591 Discovery Miles 25 910 Save R541 (17%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

The literature on social science methods and the issues surrounding them has grown massively and continues to increase. Yet many social scientists are ambivalent about methodology. For some, it plays a central, perhaps even an all-encompassing, role; while, for others, it is desirable only in small amounts, or indeed is regarded as an irrelevance, as a distraction from actually doing research. In this book, Hammersley argues that, in large part, this reflects and is part of a wider problem: the gradual decline of a previously influential academic model of inquiry. This has occurred as a result of ideological challenges and the erosion of the institutional conditions that support academic work. He defends this model, spelling out the demands it places upon social scientists, and examining such issues as the proper role of methodology, the nature of objectivity, the false idea that social scientists should be intellectuals or social critics, the dialectic of academic discussion, the ethics of belief, and the limits of academic freedom. More broadly, he also questions the role of the social research within society and what it means to be a social scientist in the 21st century. Hammersley's book is engagingly written and controversial. It tackles the major issues of contemporary social research methodology head on and is an essential read for anyone with an interest in this field.

The Myth of Research-Based Policy and Practice (Hardcover, New): Martyn Hammersley The Myth of Research-Based Policy and Practice (Hardcover, New)
Martyn Hammersley
R3,024 R2,503 Discovery Miles 25 030 Save R521 (17%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Martyn Hammersley's provocative new text interrogates the complex relationship between research, policymaking and practice, against the background of the evidence-based practice movement. Addressing a series of probing questions, this book reflects on the challenge posed by the idea that social research can directly serve policymaking and practice.

Key questions explored include:

- Is scientific research evidence-based?

- What counts as evidence for evidence-based practice?

- Is social measurement possible, and is it necessary?

- What are the criteria by which qualitative research should be judged?

The book also discusses the case for action research, the nature of systematic reviews, proposals for interpretive reviews, and the process of qualitative synthesis.

Highly readable and undeniably relevant, this book is a valuable resource for both academics and professionals involved with research.

What's Wrong With Ethnography? (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley What's Wrong With Ethnography? (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley
R4,272 Discovery Miles 42 720 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

This stimulating and refreshing study, written by one of the leading commentators in the field, provides novel answers to these crucial questions. "What's Wrong With Ethnography provides a fresh look at the rationale for and distinctiveness of ethnographic research in sociology, education and related fields, and succeeds in slaying a number of currently fashionable sacred cows. Relativism, critical theory, the uniqueness of the case study and the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research are all examined and found wanting as a basis for informed ethnography. The policy and political implications of ethnography are a particular focus of attention. The author compels the reader to reexamine some basic methodological assumptions in an exciting way", Martin Bulmer, London School of Economics.

The Limits of Social Science - Causal Explanation and Value Relevance (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley The Limits of Social Science - Causal Explanation and Value Relevance (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley
R2,944 R2,438 Discovery Miles 24 380 Save R506 (17%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

What forms of knowledge can social science claim to produce? Does it employ causal analysis, and if so what does this entail? What role should values play in the work of social scientists?

These are the questions addressed in this book. They are closely interrelated, and the answers offered here challenge many currently prevailing assumptions. They carry implications both for research practice, quantitative or qualitative, and for the public claims that social scientists make about the value of their work.

The arguments underpinning this challenge to conventional wisdom are laid out in detail in the first half of the book. In later chapters their implications are explored for two substantive areas of intrinsic importance: the study of social mobility and educational inequalities; and explanations for urban riots, notably those that took place in London and other English cities in the summer of 2011.

Educational Research, Policymaking and Practice (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley Educational Research, Policymaking and Practice (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley
R3,945 Discovery Miles 39 450 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Educational research and its relationship with policy making and practice has been a perennial concern. This book deals with some basic and controversial questions about that issue, including:

- Can there be harmony in the relationship between researchers and educational policymakers or practitioners?

- Do increases in knowledge always lead to practical improvement, and never to undesirable consequences?

- Would educational research flourish if it were subjected to more central, and external, control?

- What is the role of research reviews in making the results of research publicly available?

Educational Research maps the demands now being made on educational research against the background complexities of the relationship between research and practice.

This book is for students on methodology courses, taught courses and research degrees in education, social science disciplines, social policy, and health studies, both at masters and doctoral level.


The Politics of Social Research (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley The Politics of Social Research (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley
R4,104 Discovery Miles 41 040 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Is social research political? Should it be political? What are the implications of the politicization of social research? Recent years have seen a growing range of challenges to the idea that research should be governed by the principle of value neutrality. Critical, feminist, antiracist and postmodernist analyses have argued that social research is intrinsically political. In this stimulating and often controversial book, Martyn Hammersley weighs the arguments offered in support of these positions. He considers the fundamental issues that the debate raises about the nature of social research, its political dimensions and its contemporary relevance. At the same time he provides a robust defence of value neutrality as a constitutive principle of social research, and makes a reassessment of the role of research in modern societies. Praise for The Politics of Social Research `For anyone interested in the nature of social research, who has enough grasp of the issues to access the text, this book is a must' - British Journal of Educational Psychology `All in all Hammersley has produced a text which provides us with much to think about. As I have said, certain chapters will, no doubt, attract considerable debate. Almost all of the chapters could stand alone but the broad political theme used to bring chapters and topics together works well almost always' - Local Government Studies `Not only is Hammersley a leading exponent of sociological research, he is also a key writer and thinker on the problems of undertaking research. This collection, some of which has been published elsewhere and some not, therefore is a welcome addition to the literature on social research... interesting and well-argued' - Disability and Society

What's Wrong With Ethnography? (Paperback, New): Martyn Hammersley What's Wrong With Ethnography? (Paperback, New)
Martyn Hammersley
R1,558 Discovery Miles 15 580 Ships in 7 - 11 working days


Contents:
Part One: Ethnography, Theory and Reality 1. What's wrong with ethnography? The myth of theoretical description 2. Some questions about theory in ethnography and history 3. Ethnoraphy and realism 4. By what criteria should ethnographic research be judged? Part Two: Ethnography, Relevance and Practice 5. The relevance of ethnography 6. Critical theory as a model for ethnography 7. Parts that even ethnography cannot reach: Some reflections on the relationship between research and policy 8. On practitioner ethnography Part Three: Qualitative versus Quantitative Method 9. Deconstructing the quantitative-qualitative divide 10. Keeping the converstion open: the relationship between quantitative and qualitative 11. The logic of theory-testing in case study research 12. So, what are case studies?

The Concept of Culture - A History and Reappraisal (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2019): Martyn Hammersley The Concept of Culture - A History and Reappraisal (Hardcover, 1st ed. 2019)
Martyn Hammersley
R1,480 Discovery Miles 14 800 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

While the term 'culture' has come to be very widely used in both popular and academic discourse, it has a variety of meanings, and the differences among these have not been given sufficient attention. This book explores these meanings, and identifies some of the problems associated with them, as well as examining the role that values should play in cultural analysis. The development of four, very different, conceptions of culture is traced from the nineteenth century onwards: a notion of aesthetic cultivation associated with Matthew Arnold; the evolutionary view of culture characteristic of nineteenth-century anthropology; the idea of diverse cultures characteristic of twentieth and twenty-first century anthropology; and a conception of culture as a process of situated meaning-making - found today across anthropology, sociology, and cultural studies. These conceptions of culture are interrogated, and a reformulation of the concept is sketched. This book will be of interest to students and scholars across a variety of fields, including anthropology, sociology, cultural studies, and education.

Questioning Qualitative Inquiry - Critical Essays (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley Questioning Qualitative Inquiry - Critical Essays (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley
R3,185 R2,634 Discovery Miles 26 340 Save R551 (17%) Ships in 10 - 15 working days

Is qualitative research in crisis? In Questioning Qualitative Inquiry Martyn Hammersley raises fundamental questions about the current state of qualitative social research. He examines some of the changes that have taken place within it over the past fifty years, suggesting that the move away from natural science as a model, and towards an appeal to literature and art, involves rejection of key principles that are essential to research of any kind. Hammersley argues that, in important respects, qualitative inquiry has not lived up to the claims originally made on its behalf, and that more recent developments have worsened the situation. Insufficient attention has been given to the problems surrounding leading ideas like thick description, analytic induction, and constructionism. The argument is pursued through discussion of the work of influential writers - such as Clifford, Geertz, Denzin and Lincoln - and by detailed examination of concrete issues, like the value of interview data, the rationales for discourse and conversation analysis, the role of rhetoric in research reports, and the nature of assessment criteria. At a time when qualitative inquiry is coming under renewed challenge in some quarters, the task of addressing the methodological problems it faces has become urgent. These essays on current developments and debates are essential reading for anyone interested in the future of qualitative research.

Educational Research, Policymaking and Practice (Paperback): Martyn Hammersley Educational Research, Policymaking and Practice (Paperback)
Martyn Hammersley
R1,243 Discovery Miles 12 430 Ships in 7 - 11 working days

Educational research and its relationship with policy making and practice has been a perennial concern. This book deals with some basic and controversial questions about that issue, including:

- Can there be harmony in the relationship between researchers and educational policymakers or practitioners?

- Do increases in knowledge always lead to practical improvement, and never to undesirable consequences?

- Would educational research flourish if it were subjected to more central, and external, control?

- What is the role of research reviews in making the results of research publicly available?

Educational Research maps the demands now being made on educational research against the background complexities of the relationship between research and practice.

This book is for students on methodology courses, taught courses and research degrees in education, social science disciplines, social policy, and health studies, both at masters and doctoral level.


Curriculum Practice - Some Sociological Case Studies (Hardcover): Martyn Hammersley, Andy Hargreaves Curriculum Practice - Some Sociological Case Studies (Hardcover)
Martyn Hammersley, Andy Hargreaves
R3,798 Discovery Miles 37 980 Out of stock

When first published this book was one of the first collections of empirical research in the area of the knowledge transmitted in schools and the responses of students to it. It includes studies of the histories of particular school subjects and of how the knowledge they embody is presented in the classroom. Attention is also given to the effects of gender stereotypes among teachers and pupils, both on pupils' selection of courses to study and on their reactions to particular subjects in the classroom. The other major topic in this collection is the way external examinations shape the nature of the school curriculum and how it is taught. There are studies of how pupils and teachers adapt to the exam system, and of how that system and its role in the accountability of schools, have changed in recent years. The articles collected here throw into relief important aspects of what is taught in schools, and they do this on the basis of a solid foundation of empirical research.

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