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First published in 1975, this book compiles a number of studies concerning institutional care and children, which address the question of why institutions that serve apparently similar functions differ so much. The book uses comparative methods such as measurement of different `dimensions' of institutional care and analysis of interrelationships among specific structural and functional features which characterise particular institutions. As a result, the book draws broad conclusions about the importance of factors that have dynamic influence on the manner in which institutions function and the reasons why they differ. The editors reject the `steampress' model which postulates that institutions are more or less alike. They discuss ideological and organisational variation, differences in staffing and the manner in which children respond to them, and consider these issues as factors that influence the way in which an institution functions `as a whole'. Subsequent chapters describe comparative studies carried out in institutions for the mentally handicapped, approved schools, residential nurseries, probation hostels, other `correctional' institutions and units for autistic children. The book enables the reader to appreciate achievements and shortcomings of contemporary research and thinking in this field.
This book contains the papers given at a workshop organised by the Home Office (England and Wales) on the subject of residential burglary. This is a topic of much public concern, and I welcome the Home Office initiative in mounting the workshop. The contributors were all researchers and crim- inologists who have made a special study of burglary, and their brief was to consider the implications of their work for policy. As a policeman, I find their work of particular interest and relevance at this time when police per- formance, as traditionally measured by the clear-up rate, is not keeping pace with the increase in the numbers of burglaries coming to police attention. The finding that increases in burglary are more reflective of the public's reporting habits than of any significant rise in the actual level of burglary helps with perspective but offers little comfort to policemen. The 600/0 in- crease in the official statistics since 1970 is accompanied by a proportionate increase in police work in visiting victims, searching scenes of crime, writing crime reports, and completing other documentation. In some forces the point has been reached where available detective time is so taken up by the volume of visits and reports that there is little remaining for actual in- vestigation. But because of the random and opportunist nature of burglary, it cannot be said with any confidence that increasing investigative capacity would make a significant and lasting impact on the overall burglary figures.
In 1973, the central office of the German police, the Federal Criminal Police Office, was legally obliged "to maintain the necessary facilities for...research in forensic science," "to monitor crime trends and compile analytical reports and statistics on this basis," and "to conduct research with a view to developing police methods and procedures for crime control." This task is undertaken in the Research and Training Institute by the research units on criminology and criminal investigation and on technological development. In this volume, researchers from the Institute present their latest projects as well as report on the activities undertaken since 1973. This gives you a comprehensive picture of their wide-ranging work. They also examine the role that specialized police research plays for crime policy-makers, detectives and criminologists. A list of publications from the Federal Criminal Police Office completes the book.
A rare collection of 22 studies demonstrating the effectiveness of the situational approach to crime prevention. Clarke authoritatively reviews the state-of-the-art of this rapidly growing new perspective.
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