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Growth - From Microorganisms to Megacities (Hardcover): Vaclav Smil Growth - From Microorganisms to Megacities (Hardcover)
Vaclav Smil
R783 R609 Discovery Miles 6 090 Save R174 (22%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

A systematic investigation of growth in nature and society, from tiny organisms to the trajectories of empires and civilizations. Growth has been both an unspoken and an explicit aim of our individual and collective striving. It governs the lives of microorganisms and galaxies; it shapes the capabilities of our extraordinarily large brains and the fortunes of our economies. Growth is manifested in annual increments of continental crust, a rising gross domestic product, a child's growth chart, the spread of cancerous cells. In this magisterial book, Vaclav Smil offers systematic investigation of growth in nature and society, from tiny organisms to the trajectories of empires and civilizations. Smil takes readers from bacterial invasions through animal metabolisms to megacities and the global economy. He begins with organisms whose mature sizes range from microsopic to enormous, looking at disease-causing microbes, the cultivation of staple crops, and human growth from infancy to adulthood. He examines the growth of energy conversions and man-made objects that enable economic activities-developments that have been essential to civilization. Finally, he looks at growth in complex systems, beginning with the growth of human populations and proceeding to the growth of cities. He considers the challenges of appraising the growth trajectories of empires and civilizations, explaining that we can chart the growth of organisms across individual and evolutionary time, but that the progress of societies and economies, not so linear, encompasses both decline and renewal. The trajectory of modern civilization, driven by competing imperatives of material growth and biospheric limits, Smil tells us, remains uncertain.

Natural Gas - Fuel for the 21st Century (Paperback): Vaclav Smil Natural Gas - Fuel for the 21st Century (Paperback)
Vaclav Smil
R596 R442 Discovery Miles 4 420 Save R154 (26%) Shipped within 7 - 13 working days

Natural gas is the world s cleanest fossil fuel; it generates less air pollution and releases less CO2 per unit of useful energy than liquid fuels or coals. With its vast supplies of conventional resources and nonconventional stores, the extension of long-distance gas pipelines and the recent expansion of liquefied natural gas trade, a truly global market has been created for this clean fuel. Natural Gas: Fuel for the 21st Century discusses the place and prospects of natural gas in modern high-energy societies. Vaclav Smil presents a systematic survey of the qualities, origins, extraction, processing and transportation of natural gas, followed by a detailed appraisal of its many preferred, traditional and potential uses, and the recent emergence of the fuel as a globally traded commodity. The unfolding diversification of sources, particularly hydraulic fracturing, and the role of natural gas in national and global energy transitions are described. The book concludes with a discussion on the advantages, risks, benefits and costs of natural gas as a leading, if not dominant, fuel of the 21st century. This interdisciplinary text will be of interest to a wide readership concerned with global energy affairs including professionals and academics in energy and environmental science, policy makers, consultants and advisors with an interest in the rapidly-changing global energy industry.

Energy and Civilization - A History (Hardcover): Vaclav Smil Energy and Civilization - A History (Hardcover)
Vaclav Smil
R779 R604 Discovery Miles 6 040 Save R175 (22%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

A comprehensive account of how energy has shaped society throughout history, from pre-agricultural foraging societies through today's fossil fuel-driven civilization. "I wait for new Smil books the way some people wait for the next 'Star Wars' movie. In his latest book, Energy and Civilization: A History, he goes deep and broad to explain how innovations in humans' ability to turn energy into heat, light, and motion have been a driving force behind our cultural and economic progress over the past 10,000 years. -Bill Gates, Gates Notes, Best Books of the Year Energy is the only universal currency; it is necessary for getting anything done. The conversion of energy on Earth ranges from terra-forming forces of plate tectonics to cumulative erosive effects of raindrops. Life on Earth depends on the photosynthetic conversion of solar energy into plant biomass. Humans have come to rely on many more energy flows-ranging from fossil fuels to photovoltaic generation of electricity-for their civilized existence. In this monumental history, Vaclav Smil provides a comprehensive account of how energy has shaped society, from pre-agricultural foraging societies through today's fossil fuel-driven civilization. Humans are the only species that can systematically harness energies outside their bodies, using the power of their intellect and an enormous variety of artifacts-from the simplest tools to internal combustion engines and nuclear reactors. The epochal transition to fossil fuels affected everything: agriculture, industry, transportation, weapons, communication, economics, urbanization, quality of life, politics, and the environment. Smil describes humanity's energy eras in panoramic and interdisciplinary fashion, offering readers a magisterial overview. This book is an extensively updated and expanded version of Smil's Energy in World History (1994). Smil has incorporated an enormous amount of new material, reflecting the dramatic developments in energy studies over the last two decades and his own research over that time.

Enriching the Earth - Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production (Paperback, New edition): Vaclav... Enriching the Earth - Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production (Paperback, New edition)
Vaclav Smil
R640 R492 Discovery Miles 4 920 Save R148 (23%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

Dr. Smil is the world's authority on nitrogenous fertilizer. The industrial synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen has been of greater fundamental importance to the modern world than the invention of the airplane, nuclear energy, space flight, or television. The expansion of the world's population from 1.6 billion people in 1900 to today's six billion would not have been possible without the synthesis of ammonia. In Enriching the Earth, Vaclav Smil begins with a discussion of nitrogen's unique status in the biosphere, its role in crop production, and traditional means of supplying the nutrient. He then looks at various attempts to expand natural nitrogen flows through mineral and synthetic fertilizers. The core of the book is a detailed narrative of the discovery of ammonia synthesis by Fritz Haber-a discovery scientists had sought for over one hundred years-and its commercialization by Carl Bosch and the chemical company BASF. Smil also examines the emergence of the large-scale nitrogen fertilizer industry and analyzes the extent of global dependence on the Haber-Bosch process and its biospheric consequences. Finally, it looks at the role of nitrogen in civilization and, in a sad coda, describes the lives of Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch after the discovery of ammonia synthesis.

Made in the USA - The Rise and Retreat of American Manufacturing (Paperback): Vaclav Smil Made in the USA - The Rise and Retreat of American Manufacturing (Paperback)
Vaclav Smil
R371 R298 Discovery Miles 2 980 Save R73 (20%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

An argument that America's economy needs a strong and innovative manufacturing sector and the jobs it creates. "There's no author whose books I look forward to more than Vaclav Smil." -Bill Gates In Made in the USA, Vaclav Smil powerfully rebuts the notion that manufacturing is a relic of predigital history and that the loss of American manufacturing is a desirable evolutionary step toward a pure service economy. Smil argues that no advanced economy can prosper without a strong, innovative manufacturing sector and the jobs it creates. Smil explains how manufacturing became a fundamental force behind America's economic, strategic, and social dominance. He describes American manufacturing's rapid rise at the end of the nineteenth century, its consolidation and modernization between the two world wars, its role as an enabler of mass consumption after 1945, and its recent decline. Some economists argue that shipping low-value jobs overseas matters little because the high-value work remains in the United States. But, asks Smil, do we want a society that consists of a small population of workers doing high-value-added work and masses of unemployed? Smil assesses various suggestions for solving America's manufacturing crisis, including lowering corporate tax rates, promoting research and development, and improving public education. Will America act to preserve and reinvigorate its manufacturing? It is crucial to our social and economic well-being; but, Smil warns, the odds are no better than even.

Still the Iron Age - Iron and Steel in the Modern World (Paperback): Vaclav Smil Still the Iron Age - Iron and Steel in the Modern World (Paperback)
Vaclav Smil
R776 Discovery Miles 7 760 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Although the last two generations have seen an enormous amount of attention paid to advances in electronics, the fact remains that high-income, high-energy societies could thrive without microchips, etc., but, by contrast, could not exist without steel. Because of the importance of this material to comtemporary civilization, a comprehensive resource is needed for metallurgists, non-metallurgists, and anyone with a background in environmental studies, industry, manufacturing, and history, seeking a broader understanding of the history of iron and steel and its current and future impact on society. Given its coverage of the history of iron and steel from its genesis to slow pre-industrial progress, revolutionary advances during the 19th century, magnification of 19th century advances during the past five generations, patterns of modern steel production, the ubiquitous uses of the material, potential substitutions, advances in relative dematerialization, and appraisal of steel's possible futures, Still the Iron Age: Iron and Steel in the Modern World by world-renowned author Vaclav Smil meets that need.

Power Density - A Key to Understanding Energy Sources and Uses (Paperback): Vaclav Smil Power Density - A Key to Understanding Energy Sources and Uses (Paperback)
Vaclav Smil
R605 Discovery Miles 6 050 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

The first systematic, quantitative appraisal of power density, offering detailed reviews of power densities of renewable energy flows, fossil fuels, and all common energy uses. "There's no author whose books I look forward to more than Vaclav Smil." -Bill Gates In this book, Vaclav Smil argues that power density is a key determinant of the nature and dynamics of energy systems. Any understanding of complex energy systems must rely on quantitative measures of many fundamental variables. Power density-the rate of energy flux per unit of area-is an important but largely overlooked measure. Smil provides the first systematic, quantitative appraisal of power density, offering detailed reviews of the power densities of renewable energy flows, fossil fuels, thermal electricity generation, and all common energy uses. Smil shows that careful quantification, critical appraisals, and revealing comparisons of power densities make possible a deeper understanding of the ways we harness, convert, and use energies. Conscientious assessment of power densities, he argues, proves particularly revealing when contrasting the fossil fuel-based energy system with renewable energy conversions. Smil explains that modern civilization has evolved as a direct expression of the high power densities of fossil fuel extraction. He argues that our inevitable (and desirable) move to new energy arrangements involving conversions of lower-density renewable energy sources will require our society-currently dominated by megacities and concentrated industrial production-to undergo a profound spatial restructuring of its energy system.

Biomass Energies - Resources, Links, Constraints (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1983): Vaclav Smil Biomass Energies - Resources, Links, Constraints (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1983)
Vaclav Smil
R2,226 R1,837 Discovery Miles 18 370 Save R389 (17%) Shipped within 7 - 12 working days

tions is not possible without first putting the problem into a wider con- text. Consequently, before proceeding with detailed critical topical cov- erage of individual biomass energy sources, uses, and effects, I will extend this preface with a few pages of rather personal reflections (I will use the same device in closing the book: after providing concise topical summaries in Chapter 8, I will conclude with some essayistic musings on renewable energetics, plants, people, and a scientist's responsibility). Interest in biomass energies is just a part of a broader global trend toward renewable energetics, a trend which has evolved speedily after the crude oil price escalation started in 1973. Yet one must be reminded that for the rich countries fossil fuels are, and for a long period shall remain, the foundation of an affluent civilization, while throughout the poor world the reliance of most people on biomass energies for everyday subsistence has brought many damaging environmental and social ef- fects; that the reality of sharp price rises for crude oil (actually not so sharp once adjusted for inflation) should not be misconstrued as an "energy crisis"; that the rise of renew abies and the claims made on their behalf by countless enthusiasts look so much better on paper than in reality; and that the potential of biomass energies, an essential ingre- dient of renewable scenarios, has been judged more with proselytizing zeal than with critical detachment.

Carbon-Nitrogen-Sulfur - Human Interference in Grand Biospheric Cycles (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed.... Carbon-Nitrogen-Sulfur - Human Interference in Grand Biospheric Cycles (Paperback, Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1985)
Vaclav Smil
R2,445 R2,320 Discovery Miles 23 200 Save R125 (5%) Special order

ica, I considered myself an old hand: when I started to study the environment of the North Bohemian region in 1963, the ecosystemic changes and health effects result- ing from extremely high concentrations and deposition of sulfurous and nitrogenous air pollutants and particulate matter could not be ignored. When I returned to the area in 1966 to work there for nearly three years as a consultant in energy and environmental affairs, I came to realize the difficulties of efficiently controlling the problem. Hiking on the crest of the Ore Mountains overlooking the valley, I saw much destruction and degradation of coniferous plantings-but I was also repeatedly surprised by the contrast of the withering tops and stunted dried-out growth of spruces and firs with the magnificent beech trees and the healthy understory of shrubs and wild flowers. I recall this impressive lesson of ecosystemic vulnerability and resistance every time I read sweeping generalizations about the environmental effects of acid deposition. At the same time, in the second half of the 1960s, I was introduced by a friend, an engineer working in analytical chemistry and biochemistry, to some of the mysteries of enzymes; this led me to nitrogenase, one of the most incredible sub- stances on this planet, and to an interest in various aspects of the nitrogen cycle, which was further strengthened by my later work on the energy cost of crop production, involving inevitable comparisons between natural nitrogen fixation and Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis.

Energy Transitions - History, Requirements, Prospects (Hardcover): Vaclav Smil Energy Transitions - History, Requirements, Prospects (Hardcover)
Vaclav Smil
R1,430 Discovery Miles 14 300 Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Energy transitions are fundamental processes behind the evolution of human societies: they both drive and are driven by technical, economic, and social changes. In a bold and provocative argument, "Energy Transitions: History, Requirements, Prospects" describes the history of modern society's dependence on fossil fuels and the prospects for the transition to a nonfossil world. Vaclav Smil, who has published more on various aspects of energy than any working scientist, makes it clear that this transition will not be accomplished easily, and that it cannot be accomplished within the timetables established by the Obama administration.

The book begins with a survey of the basic properties of modern energy systems. It then offers detailed explanations of universal patterns of energy transitions, the peculiarities of changing energy use in the world's leading economies, and the coming shifts from fossil fuels to renewable conversions. Specific cases of these transitions are analyzed for eight of the world's leading energy consumers. The author closes with perspectives on the nature and pace of the coming energy transition to renewable conversions.

Energy at the Crossroads - Global Perspectives and Uncertainties (Paperback, New Ed): Vaclav Smil Energy at the Crossroads - Global Perspectives and Uncertainties (Paperback, New Ed)
Vaclav Smil
R503 R457 Discovery Miles 4 570 Save R46 (9%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

An objective, comprehensive, and accessible examination of today's most crucial problem: preserving the environment in the face of society's insatiable demand for energy. In Energy at the Crossroads, Vaclav Smil considers the twenty-first century's crucial question: how to reconcile the modern world's unceasing demand for energy with the absolute necessity to preserve the integrity of the biosphere. With this book he offers a comprehensive, accessible guide to today's complex energy issues-how to think clearly and logically about what is possible and what is desirable in our energy future. After a century of unprecedented production growth, technical innovation, and expanded consumption, the world faces a number of critical energy challenges arising from unequal resource distribution, changing demand patterns, and environmental limitations. The fundamental message of Energy at the Crossroads is that our dependence on fossil fuels must be reduced not because of any imminent resource shortages but because the widespread burning of oil, coal, and natural gas damages the biosphere and presents increasing economic and security problems as the world relies on more expensive supplies and Middle Eastern crude oil. Smil begins with an overview of the twentieth century's long-term trends and achievements in energy production. He then discusses energy prices, the real cost of energy, and "energy linkages"-the effect energy issues have on the economy, on quality of life, on the environment, and in wartime. He discusses the pitfalls of forecasting, giving many examples of failed predictions and showing that unexpected events can disprove complex models. And he examines the pros and cons not only of fossil fuels but also of alternative fuels such as hydroenergy, biomass energy, wind power, and solar power. Finally, he considers the future, focusing on what really matters, what works, what is realistic, and which outcomes are most desirable.

Energy in Nature and Society - General Energetics of Complex Systems (Paperback): Vaclav Smil Energy in Nature and Society - General Energetics of Complex Systems (Paperback)
Vaclav Smil
R751 R671 Discovery Miles 6 710 Save R80 (11%) Shipped within 7 - 11 working days

Energy in Nature and Society is a systematic and exhaustive analysis of all the major energy sources, storages, flows, and conversions that have shaped the evolution of the biosphere and civilization. Vaclav Smil uses fundamental unifying metrics (most notably for power density and energy intensity) to provide an integrated framework for analyzing all segments of energetics (the study of energy flows and their transformations). The book explores not only planetary energetics (such as solar radiation and geomorphic processes) and bioenergetics (photosynthesis, for example) but also human energetics (such as metabolism and thermoregulation), tracing them from hunter-gatherer and agricultural societies through modern-day industrial civilization. Included are chapters on heterotrophic conversions, traditional agriculture, preindustrial complexification, fossil fuels, fossil-fueled civilization, the energetics of food, and the implications of energetics for the environment. The book concludes with an examination of general patterns, trends, and socioeconomic considerations of energy use today, looking at correlations between energy and value, energy and the economy, energy and quality of life, and energy futures. Throughout the book, Smil chooses to emphasize the complexities and peculiarities of the real world, and the counterintuitive outcomes of many of its processes, over abstract models. Energy in Nature and Society provides a unique, comprehensive, single-volume analysis and reference source on all important energy matters, from natural to industrial energy flows, from fuels to food, from the Earth's formation to possible energy futures, and can serve as a text for courses in energy studies, global ecology, earth systems science, biology, and chemistry. Vaclav Smil is Distinguished Professor at the University of Manitoba and the author of many books, including Energy at the Crossroads (2003), The Earth's Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics, and Change (2002), and Energies: An Illustrated Guide to the Biosphere and Civilization (1998), all of which are published by The MIT Press.

Energies - An Illustrated Guide to the Biosphere and Civilization (Paperback, Revised): Vaclav Smil Energies - An Illustrated Guide to the Biosphere and Civilization (Paperback, Revised)
Vaclav Smil
R462 R422 Discovery Miles 4 220 Save R40 (9%) Special order

Energy is the only universal currency. One of its many forms must be transformed into another in order for stars to shine, planets to rotate, living things to grow, and civilizations to evolve. Recognition of this universality was one of the great achievements of nineteenth-century science, yet even today there is little literature that tries to view the world broadly through the prism of energy.In this highly original book, ecologist Vaclav Smil takes the principle of universality seriously, presenting a comprehensive and integrated survey of all the forms of energy that shape our world, from the sun to the human body, from bread to microchips. Written in a scientifically sophisticated yet accessible style, Energies consists of eighty-two short essays organized under six headings: Sun and Earth, Plants and Animals, People and Food, Preindustrial Societies, Fossil-Fueled Civilization, and Motion and Information. Each essay explains the science of the energy form as well as its implications for the functioning of the universe, life, or human society. Cross-links and summary diagrams allow easy comparisons among the various levels and flows of energy.

Energy and Civilization - A History (Standard format, CD): Vaclav Smil Energy and Civilization - A History (Standard format, CD)
Vaclav Smil; Narrated by David Colacci
R921 R696 Discovery Miles 6 960 Save R225 (24%) Special order
Oil (MP3 format, CD): Vaclav Smil Oil (MP3 format, CD)
Vaclav Smil; Read by Robert Meldrum
R187 R175 Discovery Miles 1 750 Save R12 (6%) Special order
Energy (MP3 format, CD): Vaclav Smil Energy (MP3 format, CD)
Vaclav Smil; Read by Dave Ferguson
R187 R175 Discovery Miles 1 750 Save R12 (6%) Special order
Energy (Vinyl record, Unabridged edition): Vaclav Smil Energy (Vinyl record, Unabridged edition)
Vaclav Smil; Read by Dave Ferguson
R356 R291 Discovery Miles 2 910 Save R65 (18%) Special order
Oil (Vinyl record, Unabridged edition): Vaclav Smil Oil (Vinyl record, Unabridged edition)
Vaclav Smil; Read by Robert Meldrum; Produced by Yen Nguyen
R356 R291 Discovery Miles 2 910 Save R65 (18%) Special order
Harvesting the Biosphere - What We Have Taken from Nature (Paperback): Vaclav Smil Harvesting the Biosphere - What We Have Taken from Nature (Paperback)
Vaclav Smil
R465 R425 Discovery Miles 4 250 Save R40 (9%) Special order

An interdisciplinary and quantitative account of human claims on the biosphere's stores of living matter, from prehistoric hunting to modern energy production. The biosphere-the Earth's thin layer of life-dates from nearly four billion years ago, when the first simple organisms appeared. Many species have exerted enormous influence on the biosphere's character and productivity, but none has transformed the Earth in so many ways and on such a scale as Homo sapiens. In Harvesting the Biosphere, Vaclav Smil offers an interdisciplinary and quantitative account of human claims on the biosphere's stores of living matter, from prehistory to the present day. Smil examines all harvests-from prehistoric man's hunting of megafauna to modern crop production-and all uses of harvested biomass, including energy, food, and raw materials. Without harvesting of the biomass, Smil points out, there would be no story of human evolution and advancing civilization; but at the same time, the increasing extent and intensity of present-day biomass harvests are changing the very foundations of civilization's well-being. In his detailed and comprehensive account, Smil presents the best possible quantifications of past and current global losses in order to assess the evolution and extent of biomass harvests. Drawing on the latest work in disciplines ranging from anthropology to environmental science, Smil offers a valuable long-term, planet-wide perspective on human-caused environmental change.

Bad Earth (Hardcover): M.E. Sharpe, Vaclav Smil Bad Earth (Hardcover)
M.E. Sharpe, Vaclav Smil
R1,587 Discovery Miles 15 870 Special order
Bad Earth (Paperback): M.E. Sharpe Inc, Vaclav Smil Bad Earth (Paperback)
M.E. Sharpe Inc, Vaclav Smil
R365 Discovery Miles 3 650 Special order
The Bad Earth: Environmental Degradation in China - Environmental Degradation in China (Hardcover): Vaclav Smil The Bad Earth: Environmental Degradation in China - Environmental Degradation in China (Hardcover)
Vaclav Smil
R2,189 Discovery Miles 21 890 Special order

This work focuses on the 19th-century mission conducted by Chinese evangelists among the Hakka, an ethnic minority in south China. The principal part of the text comprises the autobiographies of eight pioneer missionaries who offer insight into village life and customs of the Hakka people.

Energy in China's Modernization (Hardcover): Vaclav Smil Energy in China's Modernization (Hardcover)
Vaclav Smil
R2,570 Discovery Miles 25 700 Special order

A selection of 50 Slovak folk tales assembled from the collections of folklorist Pavol Dobsinsky. The translator seeks to preserve the poetic qualities of the originals, and the book includes an introduction to the genres of the folktale and the specifics of Slovak tales.

China's Environmental Crisis: An Enquiry into the Limits of National Development - An Enquiry into the Limits of National... China's Environmental Crisis: An Enquiry into the Limits of National Development - An Enquiry into the Limits of National Development (Hardcover)
Vaclav Smil
R2,197 Discovery Miles 21 970 Special order

In 1982, Vaclav Smil turned upside down traditional perceptions of China as a green paradise in "The Bad Earth", a disturbing book. This new volume, drawn on a much broader canvas, updates and expands on the basic arguments and perceptions of "The Bad Earth". This book is not a systematic litany of what went wrong and how much - but rather an inquiry into the fundamental factors, needs, prospects, and limits of modern Chinese society, all seen through the critical environmental constraints and impacts.

The Bad Earth - Environmental Degradation in China (Hardcover): Vaclav Smil The Bad Earth - Environmental Degradation in China (Hardcover)
Vaclav Smil
R2,456 Discovery Miles 24 560 Special order

As China strives to significantly increase its economic output, the nation faces an acute deterioration of the physical resources from which this prodigious growth springs. Major problems include water shortages, the pollution of water, high levels of carcinogens in the air, accelerating erosion, and industrial pollution. Originally published in 1984, Vaclav Smil documents and evaluates China's environmental crisis. This title will be of particular interest for students of Environmental Studies and Development Studies.

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