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How ordinary Americans, frustrated by the legal and political wrangling over the Second Amendment, can fight for reforms that will both respect gun owners' rights and reduce gun violence. Efforts to reduce gun violence in the United States face formidable political and constitutional barriers. Legislation that would ban or broadly restrict firearms runs afoul of the Supreme Court's current interpretation of the Second Amendment. And gun rights advocates have joined a politically savvy firearms industry in a powerful coalition that stymies reform. Ian Ayres and Fredrick Vars suggest a new way forward. We can decrease the number of gun deaths, they argue, by empowering individual citizens to choose common-sense gun reforms for themselves. Rather than ask politicians to impose one-size-fits-all rules, we can harness a libertarian approach-one that respects and expands individual freedom and personal choice-to combat the scourge of gun violence. Ayres and Vars identify ten policies that can be immediately adopted at the state level to reduce the number of gun-related deaths without affecting the rights of gun owners. For example, Donna's Law, a voluntary program whereby individuals can choose to restrict their ability to purchase or possess firearms, can significantly decrease suicide rates. Amending red flag statutes, which allow judges to restrict access to guns when an individual has shown evidence of dangerousness, can give police flexible and effective tools to keep people safe. Encouraging the use of unlawful possession petitions can help communities remove guns from more than a million Americans who are legally disqualified from owning them. By embracing these and other new forms of decentralized gun control, the United States can move past partisan gridlock and save lives now.
This volume will act as a guide through the various aspects of quantum mechanics. It not only covers the basics but also addresses new themes developed in the field of quantum mechanics in recent years. These include quantum mechanics in relation to electronics, quantum dots, spintronics, cryptography, and other more theoretical aspects, such as the path integral formulation and supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The volume presents a number of mathematical tools and physical consequences derived from quantum mechanics. The starting point of the volume is a very brief review of the phenomenology associated with the origins of quantum theory, as the branch of science was understood in the beginning of the 20th century, leading to an interpretation of the results at that time. Key features: * Provides understanding and demystification of the quantum theory * Presents applications to information theory and encryption * Introduces applications to medicine, in both treatment and diagnosis * Covers applications to modern communications systems * Looks at the philosophical implications of quantum mechanics, its reality, and its perception * Describes the application to the basics of solid state devices
Microprocessors are electronics chips that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer. A processor uses the basic concept of stored program execution. Every microprocessor has its own associated set of instructions that adjust and contains ways of computing and communicating with other hardware. A minimal hypothetical microprocessor contains arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), Instruction decode and control unit, Instruction register, Program counter (PC), clock circuit (internal or external), reset circuit (internal or external) and registers. As integrated circuit technology advanced, it has been feasible to manufacture more and more complex processors on a single chip, allowing more transistors on a single chip and then increasing allowed word sizes from 4- and 8-bit words up to today's 64-bit words. Additional features were added to the processor architecture; more on-chip registers speed up programs, and complex instructions could be used to make more compact programs. This book, Introduction to Microprocessors, provides a solid foundation in the technology of microprocessors and microcontrollers, their principles and applications. It introduces the practicing engineer to microprocessors and covers topics ranging from components for information processing to hardware structures and addressing modes, along with support software and structured programming. General principles are illustrated with examples from commercial microprocessors. In today's life, we uses microprocessor in exactly all devices. Our computer, calculators and Mobiles are some examples. It is very useful in the field of instrumentation. It is also used in medical instrumentation. Microprocessor based controllers are available in home appliances, such as microwave oven, washing machine etc., microprocessors are being used in controlling various parameters like speed, pressure, temperature etc. These are used with the help of suitable transduction. Microprocessors are being used in a wide range of communication equipments. In telephone industry, these are used in digital telephone sets. Telephone exchanges and modem etc. The use of microprocessor in television, satellite communication have made teleconferencing possible. Railway reservation and air reservation system also uses this technology. LAN and WAN for communication of vertical information through computer network. Microprocessor based microcomputer with software packages has changed the office environment. Microprocessors based systems are being used for word processing, spread sheet operations, storage etc. The microprocessor has transform the publication technology. The usage of microprocessor in toys, entertainment equipment and home solicitations is making them more entertaining and full of features. The use of microprocessors is more widespread and popular. This is an invaluable guide for both students and practicing engineers, as well as researchers. It will lead the reader even beyond the simplest cases to comparative studies and so a better understanding of its functioning. The text is comprised of nineteen chapters.
Microprocessors are a mass storage device. They are the advanced form of computers. They are also called as microcomputers. The impact of microprocessor in different lures of fields is significant. The availability of low cost, low power and small weight, computing capability makes it useful in different applications. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, programmable electronic device which accepts digital or binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a CPU on a single integrated circuit or a few integrated circuits. It is a computer processor on a microchip and is a multipurpose, programmable device that uses digital data as input and provides results as an output once it processes the input according to instructions stored in its memory. Microprocessors use sequential digital logic as they have internal memory and operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary numeral system. They are designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of data on the chip. General purpose microprocessors in PCs are used for multimedia display, computation, text editing and communication. Several microprocessors are part of embedded systems. These embedded microprocessors provide digital control to several objects including appliances, automobiles, mobile phones and industrial process control. This book takes applications of microprocessors that goes from academic to practical elements to the industrial and domestic illustrating modern applications. Now a days, a microprocessor based systems are used in instructions, automatic testing product, speed control of motors, traffic light control, light control of furnaces etc. The applications of microprocessors are enormous. Almost every aspect of our lives are affected by a device that works on a microprocessor at some point. In instrumentation devices such as frequency counters, function generators, frequency synthesizers, spectrum analyses and many other instruments. Control and communications, from the everyday devices like microwave oven, washing machine and so on, microprocessors are being used in controlling various parameters like speed, pressure, temperature. It is very useful in the field of instrumentation. Frequency counters, function generators, frequency synthesizers, spectrum analyses and many other instruments are available, when microprocessors are used as controller. It is also used in medical instrumentation. In telephone industry, these are used in digital telephone sets, telephone exchanges and modem. The use of microprocessor in television, satellite communication made teleconferencing possible. LAN and WAN for communication of vertical information through computer networking. Microprocessor based microcomputer with software packages has changed the office environment. Microprocessors based systems are being used for word processing, spread sheet operations, storage etc. The microprocessor has revolutionize the publication technology. The use of microprocessor in toys, entertainment equipment and home applications is making them more entertaining and full of features. The use of microprocessors is more widespread and popular.
In order to develop, research, model, or construct it is require to perform measurements on those systems we are interested. The type of measurement will be given by the nature of the object, or the subject under investigation. In science the measurements often pursue to understand very complicated phenomena, inaccessible sometimes to the currents measurement devices or that may need some innovation in the protocols used. Of course it is in science and engineering where most of the innovations manifest primary and then are exported to other fields, for instance the measure devise in high energy experiments carry a lot of new techniques and protocols to improve the characterization of a variety of systems. In a laboratory the conditions to perform a measurement can be controlled to a certain degree, but facing measurement in outside scenarios involves more complex situations. Typically, any construction needs the proper elaboration of it constituents, saying concrete, steel of any other product of pre-manufacturing origin, that requires in every step of its fabrication a control and monitoring, even beyond the factories, the in-situ measure of certain terrains characteristics, tension on rail roads, porosity in the ground and in the structures, all of these depends of meticulous and appropriate measurements using a variety of techniques, very often originated in pure sciences. Students, civil engineers, and materials scientists will find this book to be a good comprehensive resource for learning about the fundamental methods used in those fields to achieve trustworthy measures, focusing on specific examples that are also top research in the area, suitable for the interested reader.
Hydraulics corresponds to a wide variety of fields unified in a marvelous engineering set of models, all of then resting on several basic physical principles and with vast applications. The direct applications go from simple home hydraulic systems, as in our kitchens or bathrooms to the large industrial structures, buildings, factories, all that make modern life possible. The industrial applications are by far the most studied. It is indeed needed to understand the flows on different geometries, and how this flow produces changes in the system, pressure and viscosity, that determines how the fluid is going to behave even in the simplest structure. The complications to compute and make predictions are enormous, it is only with the aid of numerical calculations that some results can be obtained, nevertheless, the control by using valves and several types of pipelines and some other devices that allow us to reproduce the results that we need for control and applications, even when the fluids are in turbulent and complex regimes. The research in this field pursues to understand mostly industrial applications, but some branches are also related to basic science, where the physics is similar, although the equations that rules are different, such as nanofluids, nanosensors devices and nanoparticles motion in a fluid. The aim of this book is to take some practical examples and show the most relevant concepts and methods. We hope it will give a little inside into the physics and techniques involved in the hydraulics engineering.
The control of quantum physical systems refers to those whose behavior is dominated by the laws of quantum mechanics. The effective capabilities of manipulating matter and light at those scales is steadily growing and new experimental and technological possibilities are at reach, the interest in developing systematic theories for controlled quantum mechanical systems is rapidly increasing. The advantage offered by quantum information processes such as in spintronic devices has given to quantum control a new perspective, the ability of employing quantum systems to store, manipulate and retrieve information. It requires an unprecedented degree of control, and further motivates the development of control schemes specifically designed to the quantum mechanical setting. Over the past fifteen years, significant developments have been made in utilizing quantum attributes of light and matter to assume unprecedented control over the dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. This growth reflects a confluence of factors including the better understanding of quantum mechanics as a tool for chemistry and physics, the development of new laser devices increasing our ability to manipulate light, and the recognition that coherent laser light can be used to imprint information on atoms and molecules for practical purposes. In this book we cover some aspects of the basics and controlling of quantum systems using a theoretical and applied approaches, from the very grounds of the theory to some hybrid approaches to quantum control. Hope this book can guide the reader into the deeps of this fascinating field.
Solid mechanics is fundamental for civil, aerospace, nuclear, and mechanical engineering, for geology, and for many branches of physics such as materials science. It has specific applications in many other areas, such as understanding the anatomy of living beings, and the design of dental prostheses and surgical implants. One of the most common practical applications of solid mechanics is the Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. Solid mechanics extensively uses tensors to describe stresses, strains, and the relationship between them. Fundamental problems in engineering are now being solved by optical methods. Stress on materials, thermodynamic properties, elasticity are some of the factors that can be measured or estimated by using optical techniques. The physics behind all these powerful methods is very rich, goes from spectroscopy to photoelasticity. The research in this field aims to understand full scale objects using two and three dimensional models, the strain fields at the surface of materials or constructions, and also on transparent materials such as organic and inorganic glasses and monocrystals. The ability to measure in real time and non-invasively variations of certain physical quantities brought into the solids mechanics some of the measurements needed to compute with speed and accuracy some of the hallmark features. This book takes some examples that covers the most relevant methods in specific applications to some materials and giving a little inside into the physics of the techniques involved. Optical methods in experimental solid mechanics, yielding field information, combined with digital image processing and on-line evaluation of the experimentally obtained data by means of numerical procedures enable the stress-strain analysis of many problems, which couldn't be analysed satisfactorily as yet. Thus the effects of non-linear elastic, of viscoelastic material response and of any combination of such materials on the stress-strain state can be considered. Hybrid techniques, i.e. the combination of measurement techniques with numerical methods for data evaluation based on advanced mathematical algorithms yield reliable knowledge on the actual state and the real reactions of any kind of structures. The possibilities of direct measure are nowadays extremely rare and to measure implies besides manipulation of complex measuring systems, understanding of measurand and limit of application of measurement method. Stress analysis has been considered for some time as a distinct professional branch of engineering, the main objective to determine and improve the mechanical strength of elements, structures and machines. Experimental stress analysis strives to achieve these aims by experimental means. In the investigation of problems of mechanical strength, many factors make the experimental approach indispensable, and often the only means of access. In addition to this, theoretical considerations are usually based on simplifying assumptions which imply certain deviations from reality, and it can be established only by experimentation whether such idealization do not produce an undue distortion of the problem. Using experimental stress analysis is required especially if the analysis is done under real service conditions, where thre are all the influential factors such properties of the employed materials, the methods of manufacture and the operation conditions. A special place among the experimental techniques is occupied by optical methods. Among their numerous possible applications, they can help the researcher to characterize the materials' behaviour, to give access to the time-evolution of fields of data at different scales and maybe, the most important advantage, they are non-contact and provide full-field data that are naturally suitable for direct comparison with numerical solutions.
Solid-state transistors and integrated circuits has spawned the information age in the last 50 years. Information is at people's hands and communications take seconds. Such rapid development stems from tremendous developments in both hardware and software such as solid-state circuits. Approaches such as parallel processing, new circuit design, and particularly novel materials are necessary. Advances in Solid State Circuit Technologies provides concepts and current improvements of circuit technology. The applications of solid state in circuit's elements go from simple led technology to complex transistors and chips. The advances take the new technologies to smaller sizes and faster operations. First chapter presents fault diagnosis of DC analog CMOS circuits and second chapter explores on high-accuracy function synthesizer circuit with applications in signal processing. Third chapter provides a new current-controlled-power technique for small signal applications. In fourth chapter, a design of a symmetry-type floating impedance scaling circuit and the improvement method of its operation bandwidth are proposed. Fifth chapter elaborates on the design and analysis of a power efficient linearly tunable cross-coupled transconductor having separate bias control, and sixth chapter presents a novel and unique polymorphic processor design. In seventh chapter, the differential ULV inverter is presented. The improvement in term of stability and delay relative to the ULV is elaborated. Furthermore, the reliability, yield and the defect tolerance of the differential ULV inverter compared with both standards CMOS and with ULV floating-gate inverter are examined. Chip design of a low-voltage wideband continuous-time sigma-delta modulator with DWA technology for WIMAX applications are highlighted in eighth chapter. Ninth chapter introduces the system architecture of the wideband continuous-time sigma-delta modulator and ninth chapter presents the design of a novel two-stage bulk-input pseudo differential Operational Transconductance Amplifier. Tenth chapter explores on the performance improvement of phase-change memory cell using AlSb3Te and atomic layer deposition TiO2 buffer layer and eleventh chapter highlights emerging nonvolatile memory technologies. Probe-based storage technologies are illustrated in twelfth chapter and thirteenth chapter presents a comparative analysis result of the proposed scheme and the conventional thyristor protection scheme incorporating a clamp NMOS device. Fourteenth chapter presents a CMOS 3.1 - 10.6 GHZ UWB LNA employing modified derivative superposition method. In fifteenth chapter, the challenges and opportunities of CBRAM devices using different switching materials such as chalcogenides, oxides, and bilayers in different structures have been reviewed. In sixteenth chapter, we focus our attention on the recent development of the research on the QC effect in CF-based non-volatile RS devices including basic QC phenomenon in resistive random access memory (RRAM), RS mechanisms, device structures, materials, theory, and modeling of conductance quantization in RRAM. In seventeenth chapter, we report on electrical instabilities in pentacene-based transistors with Mylar and PMMA/Mylar gate dielectrics transferred by a lamination process in ambient environment. Special emphasis is given on comparing the two types of devices in ON state and subthreshold regions under gate bias stress. Eighteenth chapter presents an introduction of memristor and modelling of memristor with nonlinear dopant drift with new parameter. Ninteenth chapter focuses on canning head for the apertureless near field optical microscope and measurement of gamma-rays using smartphones is highlighted in twentieth chapter. Last chapter presents an approach on design of low power level shifter circuit with sleep transistor using multisupply voltage scheme. These chapters contain applications, written by renowned experts in the respective fields on to integrated circuits and materials science. It is intended for a broad readership which includes electrical engineers and material scientists. Readers will be able to familiarize themselves with the latest technologies in the various fields.
Superconductivity has been known for over a century. The liquefaction of Helium opened a whole new branch of experimental and theoretical work in low temperature physics. Since those days the discovery of High Temperature and Unconventional superconductors has been on the focus of a large amount of scientific research, with an exponentially growing spectra of applications for technologies. Superconducting technology has the potential for future smart grid technologies. A combination of superconductor materials, electrical engineering, cryogenic insulation, cryogenics and cryostats constitutes some of the most recognized applications so far implemented. We engage some aspects of superconductivity using a theoretical and applied approaches, then several experimental set ups and results are included with potential applications. Hope this book can guide the reader into this promising field. This book entitled Engineering Superconductivity covers some developments in these areas, making it essential for future applied superconductivity in electrical engineering and even in biomedicine. Content coverage of the book is as follows. First chapter gives an overview of recent advances in novel superconductors and second chapter presents a brief review on the investigation of the electronic structure and superconductivity of the FeSe superconductor and related systems. In third chapter, triplet superconductivity in a nutshell were studied, and fourth chapter discusses about superconductivity, charge orderings, magnetism, and their phase separations in the ground state of lattice models of superconductor with very short coherence length. Fifth chapter focuses on predicting unconventional high temperature superconductors in trigonal bipyramidal coordinations. Sixth chapter deals with electronic energy levels in high-temperature superconductors. Seventh chapter explores on experimental demonstrations of high-Q superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators. The main objective of eighth chapter is to study the electronic structure of Nb3Al/Nb3Sn using the state of the art first principle method. Ninth chapter deals with magnetoresistance oscillations in La-based metallic glass. Tenth chapter provides a novel superconducting quantum interference device for biomagnetic measurements. Eleventh chapter focuses on preparation of Nb3Al superconductor by powder metallurgy and effect of mechanical alloying on the phase formation. Twelfth chapter highlights on exploration of new superconductors and functional materials, and fabrication of superconducting tapes and wires of iron pnictides. In thirteenth chapter, competition between the superconductivity and nematic order in the high-Tc superconductor were studied. Fourteenth chapter presents interplay and competition between superconductivity and charge orderings in the zero-bandwidth limit of the extended Hubbard model with pair hopping and on-site attraction. Fifteenth chapter covers superconductivity in Fe and As based compounds. Sixteenth chapter deals with superconductivity of gold alloys and seventeenth chapter focuses on high-temperature superconducting fiber. Eighteenth chapter discusses about dielectric properties of (Zn) x /CuTl-1223 nanoparticle-superconductor composites. In nineteenth chapter experimental presentation of microwave absorption due to shaking of JV by AC magnetic field in Bi2212 and Bi2223 were presented. Last chapter deals with 3D-modeling numerical solution of guidance force of HTSC bulk above permanent magnetic guideway.
Semiconductor devices such as diodes, transistors and integrated circuits are found everywhere in our daily lives, in televisions, automobiles, washing machines and computers. We have come to rely on them in every aspect and we are expecting higher performance at lower cost. Personal computers are the corner stone on this subject. The complexity and performance of the today's personal computers vastly exceeds that of their old computer and that for about an equivalent purchase price.The essential fact which has driven the successful growth of this technological industry is that through industrial skill and technological advances. These devices deliver year after year better performance while consuming less power and because of their smaller size they can also be manufactured at a lower cost per device.Technology of the twenty-first century is relying heavily on the development of new materials and their structures in which the technology of semiconductors is the foundation of modern electronics, including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes, quantum dots, and digital and analog integrated circuits A new era has just begun, where people's life changes dramatically with every step the technology takes and the science is being developed faster with each advance. A mutual relation that only goes towards benefits in an endless cycle of growing. This book takes some interesting aspects and advances of devices that relies on semiconductor physics, guiding the reader deeper into both the physical basis and their applications.
As the world continues to move, so does the advancement of technology. Every year sheds light on improvements to yesterday's devices and new inventions appearing on the horizon. At the center of it all is a desire to speed up communication across the globe, with the intention of making inconveniences a thing of the past. Modern civilization depends on advanced communication technologies. The application of electricity to communications with inventions such as the telephone and telegraph meant people could send information instantly over long distances. More recent advances such as satellites and the Internet have extended communications worldwide and made global news and information commonplace. Communications technology continues to improve with each passing year, bringing more information choices to you at lower costs. Today's communication systems are increasingly complex. Communications system engineering may involve developing or maintaining cable-based or wireless telephone and voicemail systems, group scheduling programs, webinars, Voice over Internet Protocol or automatic call answering and routing systems. Handbook of Communications System Engineering aims to cover technical information relevant to those interested in handling and learning about communications systems to a medium-high level. It covers from on mobile communications, network and the protocols involved, to wireless and control. It compiles revised and extendsed research work written by prominent researchers and experts in their respective field. Students and engineers will find this book to be a good comprehensive resource that focus on specific examples that are also top research material in the area, suitable for the interested reader. A couple of centuries ago mankind did not even dream of communicating with the use of the sky, much less dream of something like satellite communication. A couple of decades ago we did not dream of what we could do with satellite communication. Today satellite communication has become one of most powerful methods of communication. Everything from phones to the internet to the TV and radio can be used through satellite communication. Through satellite communication it is possible for an individual to communicate with any one who has a similar communication device. This can be done from any where in the world. The latest GPS can show an individuals position with pinpoint accuracy. An individual can ask for directions from the system and it will show you the closest route that you can get there. If the road to the destination is under construction or if you cannot go in that path the GPS will choose a different route for you. The best and worst part about communication is that it evolves, develops and expands. The way we see the world today will be totally different to how we might see the world in another 10 years time. Communication methods and ways might change and expand in ways that we never thought possible.
Electric machines are often synonyms for electric motors and electric generators. The term refers to those devices that has certain mobility but furthermore, to those that transform electric currents into motion or motion into electric currents. The modern society depends upon energy to subsist, this energy comes from a number of different sources, some very polluting, like burning fossil fuels, others very low polluting - at least during energy harvesting - like solar cells, and in between, lies the inductive generators. This machines take advantage of mechanical energy, for instance water sources and wind power, and convert part of this energy in electric currents. The synchronization and control of these machines is complex, not only from the mechanical point view, but electronically. The engineer accounts for duty cycles, torque potential, cost, efficiency and magnetic core assembly among others, and the advances in these fields is growing fast. Electric Machines Principles, Applications, and Control is intended for students and engineers, as well as materials scientists will find this book to be a good comprehensive resource for learning about the fundamental control and functioning of these machines, focusing on specific examples that are also top research material in the area, suitable for the interested reader. Content coverage of the book is as follows. First chapter provides an overview of non-rare earth permanent magnets for traction motors and generators. The purpose of second chapter is to investigate the feasibility of using surface magnetic Barkhausen noise for the evaluation of AC core loss, and further, to examine potential origins of magnetic loss in non-oriented electrical steel. Third chapter presents the fault-tolerant control problem of DC motors. In fourth chapter, the application of type-2 fuzzy logic concepts to the position control of a simple DC motor were illustrated. Fifth chapter covers dynamical simulation of a nonlinear stepper motor system. Sixth chapter describes the performance of DI-BSCCO superconducting electric motor. In seventh chapter, work power factor and total harmonic distortion of separately excited DC motor controlled with AC-DC converter has been analyzed at-load. Eighth chapter proposes a method for the identification of inductive motors load partition based on coherence and ninth chapter aims to present dissimilar stator faults which are classified under electrical faults using motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and the comparison of simulation and hardware results. The aim of tenth chapter is to provide energy efficient control of three-phase induction motor drive and eleventh chapter deals with performance analysis and implementation of a three phase inverter fed induction motor (IM) drive system. The purpose of twelfth chapter is to propose a fuzzy logic speed controller of induction motor where flux and torque decoupling strategy is decoupled in terms of magnetizing current instead of stator current to alleviate the effects of core loss. Thirteenth chapter focuses on Ethernet control AC motor via programmable logic controller (PLC) using LabVIEW. Fourteenth chapter presents the capacity variation effect, speed of drive and load as function of the wind system without and with analogical regulator. Fifteenth chapter proposes a new type of the synchronous capacitive machine operated on a principle of the electric field effect. In sixteenth chapter calculations of the varying inductances profile for a synchronous linear surface mounted permanent magnet generator has been presented and seventeenth chapter explores on the steady state analysis of a double-fed induction generator (DFIG) adopted for wind power generation. Eighteenth chapter deals with high efficiency double-fed induction generator applied to wind power generator technical analyses and nineteenth chapter highlights new development in the performance improvement synchronous motor. Twentieth chapter describes a converter control to contribute to enhancing the synchronizing torque. In last chapter, a model of a variable speed wind turbine using a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is presented and the control schemes are proposed.
Power electronics is defined as the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power. It also refers to a subject of research in electronic and electrical engineering that deals with the design, control, computation, time-varying energy-processing electronic systems with fast dynamics. Power electronic converters can be found wherever there is a need to modify the electrical energy form. With "classical" electronics, electrical currents and voltage are used to carry information, whereas with power electronics, they carry power. Some examples of uses for power electronic systems are DC/DC converters used in many mobile devices, such as cell phones or PDAs, and AC/DC converters in computers and televisions. Large scale power electronics are used to control hundreds of megawatt of power flow across our nation. Research in this area includes power electronics applications to control large scale power transmission and distribution as well as the integration of distributed and renewable energy sources into the grid. It is estimated that by the year 2030, more than 80% of all electrical energy will be processed by power electronics. The advantages continue to grow for technical engineers who understand the fundamental principles and technical requirements of modern power conversion systems. Fundamentals of Power Electronics covers design-oriented analysis, modeling and simulation techniques leading to practical engineering of high-performance power electronics systems. This book will lead you to practical examples of the most relevant concepts and methods. Power electronics applications are extended to various fields such as Aerospace, Automotive electrical and electronic systems, commercial, industrial, residential, telecommunication, transportation, utility systems, etc. In case of automotive electronics, the electrically-generated systems are used in automobiles such as road vehicles like telematics, in-car entertainment systems, carputers, and so on. The need to control engines of automobiles originated in automotive electronics for proper controlling and conversion. Application of power electronics in automotive applications plays a major role in controlling automotive electronics. Automotive electronics include modern electric power steering, HEV main inverter, central body control, braking system, seat control, and so on. Application of power electronics in the automotive power generation system provides automotive alternators with improved efficiency and high power, along with high temperature withstanding capacity and high-power density with a variety of research in designing of alternator with a switched mode power electronics applications. The frequently used alternator in automotive applications is Lundell or Claw-pole alternator, as it is suitable for the required emerging performance. Field and armature characteristics of this alternator are enhanced by the use of power electronics. These alternators are used in automobiles for supplying power to the batteries and electrical system while the engine is running. Automotive alternators require a power electronic voltage regulator for producing a constant voltage at the battery terminals by modulating small field current.
Computer programming language is any of various languages for expressing a set of detailed instructions for a digital computer. Such instructions can be executed directly when they are in the computer manufacturer-specific numerical form known as machine language. Computer Language Engineering addresses the implementation of high-level programming languages into specifics fields, from science to civil engineering. Students, scientist and engineers will find this book to be a good comprehensive resource for learning about the construction and application of some relevant languages, focusing on specific applications that are also novel research material in the area. The aim of first chapter is to provide basic principles of software engineering. Second chapter presents a lightweight behavior based language for requirements modeling. The goal of third chapter is to present an elaborated emulator of a 2-D massively parallel re-configurable mesh computer of size n x n processing elements (PE). Fourth chapter deals with the semantic analysis of queries written in natural language and dedicated to the object oriented data bases. Fifth chapter focuses on integrating auto computer-aided design (ACAD) with geographic information system (GIS) for civil engineering applications. In sixth chapter, C-language programming for development of conventional water treatment plants decision support system has been studied. The purpose of seventh chapter is to deal with probabilistic graphical query language for gene expression time courses and eighth chapter discusses about the application of binary alignment/map query language (BAMQL) for extracting reads from binary alignment/map (BAM) files. Ninth chapter proposes an open, high-level, and portable programming language called "Phonepl", which is independent from vendor-specific proprietary hardware and software but can be translated into a network processor (NP) program with high performance especially in the memory use. Tenth chapter deals with common programming languages used in bioinformatics and eleventh chapter introduces Ruby as a highly suitable scripting language for biologists to learn and use. Twelfth chapter presents a domain specific language, the S3DB query language (S3QL), to operate on its underlying core model and facilitate management of linked data. Thirteenth chapter provides a generic concept that allows R users to extend their statistical and bioinformatical procedures, which are relying on commands in the R prompt, with standard graphical user interfaces. Fourteenth chapter describe how to re-architect the Java type checking process in order to obtain more informative error messages. Fifteenth chapter highlights on the environment for tree exploration (ETE), a python programming toolkit that assists in the automated manipulation, analysis and visualization of hierarchical trees. In sixteenth chapter, XIS-Mobile, a domain specific language, focused on the development of mobile applications and on mitigating the problems related to the complexity of software development and mobile platform fragmentation were studied. Seventeenth chapter presents a Perl5 toolkit for phyloinformatic analysis and eighteenth chapter introduces the application of R/parallel in speeding up bioinformatics analysis with R. Last chapter deals with development of owlcpp, a library for storing and searching RDF triples, parsing RDF/XML documents, converting triples into OWL axioms, and reasoning.
An earthquake is always an unexpected phenomenon. Modern science is not able to predict the time or the place or the earthquake strength. The problem of locating the focus of a starting earthquake has not even been set due to the poor level of understanding the processes preceding its start. At present the main earthquake hypothesis is the "explosive" relaxation of the high elastic stresses accumulated in the lithosphere. Understanding a fault's slip behavior, as well as its length and connectivity, is important for constraining the magnitude range and frequency of earthquakes that a particular fault is likely to produce. This book, Earthquake Geology, presents contributions from researchers of different countries in the world that point out the study of seismoinduced phenomena associated with recent and historical earthquakes. First chapter aims to estimate the response of freestanding full-scale equipment to 2% in 50 years hazard level motions, and the results are used to generate ready-to-use fragility curves and second chapter emphasizes on earthquake forecast with the seismic sequence hierarchization method. Third chapter encompasses the micro-earthquake monitoring with sparsely sampled data. In fourth chapter, we analyze in detail the features of the experimental weakening curves and provide a general fit which is purely empirical, with the synthesis of a large number of experiments and their result in terms of frictional breakdown energy Gf. Fifth chapter presents how to locate the focus of a starting earthquake and sixth chapter presents research on earthquake radon anomalies. Seventh chapter highlights on seismic sequence structure and earthquakes triggering patterns and eighth chapter emphasizes on predicting earthquakes with microsequences and reversed phase repetitive patterns. Application of commensurability in earthquake prediction is discussed in ninth chapter and tenth chapter gives out the co-planarity and symmetry theory of earthquake occurrence. Eleventh chapter presents a numerical investigation of earthquake shielding with seismic crystals and twelfth chapter presents an evaluation of strain accumulation in global subduction zones from seismicity data. Thirteenth chapter reveals on modification in atmospheric refractivity and GPS based TEC as earthquake precursors, and fourteenth chapter proposes a seismic-acoustic system for monitoring the earthquake origin process. The aim of fifteenth chapter is to calculate hydrodynamical phenomena: Earth's tidal and precursory variations in level of liquid in wells (boreholes) using identical systems of equations and to clarify data on distribution of hydrodynamical precursors on the Earth's surface. The objective of sixteenth chapter is to provide a wavelet transform method to detect P and S-phases in three component seismic data. In seventeenth chapter, basic models and standard mechanisms of earthquakes are briefly considered, results of processing of information on the earthquakes in the context of global spatial anisotropy caused by the existence of the vector Ag, are presented, and an analysis of them is given. Eighteenth chapter concentrates more on the actual relationship between earthquakes and solar activity and treats the effects causing the correlation only in the aspect of geomagnetic field strength variations. Nineteenth chapter presents a study on correlation of tidal forces with global great earthquakes, and an analysis and verification of forecasting the locations of future large earthquakes is given in last chapter. Forecasts of the locations of future major earthquakes play an important role in earthquake preparedness and determining earthquake insurance costs. Many such forecasts have been carried out with examples in this chapter.
Construction Robotics examines various aspects of Construction Robotics including an extensive historical overview of Construction Robotics and related issues. It includes The Basics of Construction Industry, History of Robotics in Construction, Economic Consideration of Robotic Implementation. Provides the reader with insights into the development of its development, so as to understand the rise of construction robotics in the industry and the crucial role they play in speed, accuracy and safety, when it comes to design complicated structures.
This book is intended to guide the reader into Econophysics, a brief approach to their methods and how economics has seemed a major impulse to become a predictable phenomenon. The book begins with an introduction to Econophysics, historical and basis and go on to cover statistical approaches to economics, and the near relation with physics models, probability in economics, few models and its reach. Also, the relation of economics with present interest in our lives, and in physics, justifying the use of probabilistic methods to analyze the markets and other approaches with modern physics in economics are presented as well.
This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book. ++++ The below data was compiled from various identification fields in the bibliographic record of this title. This data is provided as an additional tool in helping to ensure edition identification: ++++ Cartulaire Municipal De Saint-Maximin: Suivi De Documents Puis�s Dans Les Archives De Cette Ville St. Maximin, France (Var), Honor� Th�odore Paul Joseph d'Albert Luynes (duc de) Louis Rostan Typographie H. Plon, 1862
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