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In preparation for its 2019-2022 Country Partnership Framework with South Africa, the World Bank Group has drafted a Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) which forms the basis of this book. Its aim is to strengthen understanding of the constraints in achieving two goals in South Africa: to eliminate poverty by 2030, and to boost shared prosperity. These goals are enshrined in South Africa’s Vision 2030 in the National Development Plan.
This book is the result of consultations and conversations with key government departments, the National Planning Commission, the private sector, academics and trade unions. It identifies five broad policy priorities: to build South Africa’s skills base; to reduce the highly skewed distribution of land and productive assets; to increase competitiveness and the country’s participation in global and regional value chains; to overcome apartheid spatial patterns; and to increase the country’s strategic adaptation to climate change. The key obstacle to growth that has been identified is ‘the legacy of exclusion’.
Undoing this is a long-term process, but renewed commitment by the political leadership to strengthen institutions and rebuild the social contract present an enormous opportunity in achieving progress towards South Africa’s Vision 2030.
Trade can also lead to job losses and a concentration of work in lower skilled employment. Given the complexity and specificity of the relationship between trade and gender it is of upmost importance to assess the potential impact of trade policy on both women and men and to develop appropriate, evidence-based responses and policies to ensure that trade contribute to enhancing opportunities for all. Research on gender equality and trade has been held back by limited data and a lack of understanding of the connections between the economic roles women play as workers, consumers, and decision makers. Building on new analysis and new sex-disaggregated data, this report aims to advance understanding on the relationship between trade and gender equality and to identify a series of opportunities through which women can gain from trade.
Just like nearly every aspect of human experience, crime, conflict, and violence have become increasingly global. Around the world, civil wars, of which there are more today than at any time since the end of World War II, displace greater numbers of people ever farther from their countries of origin. Transnational terrorism has reached a 50-year high, in terms of both its incidence and the number of reported fatalities. Cross-border criminal markets--illicit drugs, human trafficking, wildlife trade, and so forth--take a heavy toll on the many societies they affect.This Policy Research Report, Violence without Borders: The Internationalization of Crime and Conflict, offers a unified framework to take stock of the theoretical and empirical literature on crime, conflict, and violence and to discuss how the international community organizes itself to address security as a regional and global public good. The increasingly global effects of crime and conflict require an equally global response to violence.
The Little Data Book 2015 is a pocket edition of World Development Indicators 2015. It is intended as a quick reference for users of the World Development Indicators database, book, and mobile app. The database covers more than 1,200 indicators and spans more than 50 years. The 214 country tables present the latest available data for World Bank member countries and other economies with populations of more than 30,000. The 14 summary tables cover regional and income group aggregates.
A comprehensive guide to the most critical issues facing our changing world. This completely revised and updated fourth edition of the Atlas of Global Development vividly illustrates the most important development challenges facing our world today. Based upon authoritative data from the World Bank's World Development Indicators, this attractive volume provides a wealth of information on critical global topics. A visual guide to global issues - easy-to-read graphical presentation with every topic presented by colourful world maps, tables, graphs, and photographs Topics that are shaping our world - from poverty, population growth, and food production to climate change, foreign direct investment, and international trade The latest, authoritative statistics - key social, economic, and environmental data for 208 countries and territories from the World Bank's World Development Indicators database. In addition, the Atlas includes detailed information about targets for the Millennium Development Goals; definitions, sources, notes, and abbreviations of commonly used terms; country comparisons for key development indicators; and a selection of related web links for each map spread. The Atlas comes with an interactive companion online atlas, the World Bank e-Atlas of Global Development, that allows users to customise maps and graph statistical series. Features include worldwide mapping, timeline graphs, ranking tables, comparative mode, the ability to export and share graphics, and easy navigation. New to this edition, a companion mobile app will allow users a robust mobile experience, providing a new and unique take on how we view global development issues. Engaging and informative, the Atlas of Global Development, is an essential resource for students and anyone interested in learning more about the state of our world.
This report examines the overall trends in political risk perceptions, foreign investment intentions, and longer-term demand for political risk guarantees, especially in emerging economies, with a a spcial focuson the risk of non honoring of sovereign financial obligations.
Every year, the World Bank's World Development Report (WDR) features a topic of central importance to global development. The 2018 edition - Learning to Realize Education's Promise - is the first ever devoted entirely to education.
This book aims to improve our understanding of the labor market conditions, behaviors, and outcomes of Nepalese youth. It examines these aspects in relation to both Nepal's domestic labor market and labor migration to international destinations. It seeks to present insights and implications for research and public policy.
This book brings together public financial management and public sector reform experiences from eight countries in East Asia. It examines how reforms have been implemented in those countries and explores key lessons that can help reformers to further advance their endeavors.
Brazil enters the election year 2018 with an economy that is gradually recovering from the deepest recession in its recent economic history. However, for many Brazilians, the recovery has not yet translated into new and better jobs, or rising incomes. This book is motivated by the need to understand the possible drivers of future income and employment growth. Its key finding: Brazil needs to dramatically improve its performance in terms of productivity if the country is to generate lasting gains in incomes and provide better jobs for its citizens. This is all the more important, because Brazil is aging rapidly and the boost the country has enjoyed thanks to its young and growing labor force in the past three decades will disappear in just a few years' time.
Romania's living standards are converging with those of the European Union, but the country still has the largest share of poor people in the EU, with widening disparities in economic opportunity. Romania must address its institutional challenges if it is to sustain growth and share prosperity among all its citizens.
Sixteenth in a series of annual reports comparing business regulation in 190 economies, Doing Business 2019 measures aspects of regulation affecting 10 areas of everyday business activity: Starting a business Dealing with construction permits Getting electricity Registering property Getting credit Protecting minority investors Paying taxes Trading across borders Enforcing contracts Resolving insolvency These areas are included in the distance to frontier score and ease of doing business ranking. Doing Business also measures features of labor market regulation, which is not included in these two measures. This edition also presents the findings of the pilot indicator, 'Contracting with the Government', which aims at benchmarking the efficiency, quality, and transparency of public procurement systems worldwide. The report updates all indicators as of May 1, 2018, ranks economies on their overall 'ease of doing business', and analyses reforms to business regulation - identifying which economies are strengthening their business environment the most. Doing Business illustrates how reforms in business regulations are being used to analyse economic outcomes for domestic entrepreneurs and for the wider economy. It is a flagship product produced in partnership by the World Bank Group that garners worldwide attention on regulatory barriers to entrepreneurship. Almost 140 economies have used the Doing Business indicators to shape reform agendas and monitor improvements on the ground.
Raising the Bar: Cities and Productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean
The International Comparison Program (ICP) is a worldwide statistical initiative led by the World Bank under the auspices of the United Nations Statistical Commission. It produces comparable price and volume measures of gross domestic product (GDP) and its expenditure aggregates across economies. Through a partnership with international, regional, sub-regional and national agencies, the ICP collects price data and GDP expenditures to estimate purchasing power parities (PPPs) for the world's economies. The report provides ICP results for the benchmark year 2017 and revised results for earlier years. ICP data are used for socio-economic analyses by researchers, academics, policy makers at the national and international levels, and by organizations such as the European Union, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations, and the World Bank. Notably, PPPs and ICP data are used in indicators monitoring progress towards eight goals of the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the World Bank's international poverty lines, and the construction of the Human Development Index by the United Nations, among others. The use of PPPs continues to grow and the ICP website (icp.worldbank.org) lists many applications of the data by the development community, academia, media and others.
This book is about global public goods (GPGs), particularly those related to the environment, in the context of the global development process. We, the co-editors of this volume, are concerned with the long-term sustainability of development, as the distinction between developing and developed countries is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. We contend that global sustainability depends on indeed, consists of the provision of certain GPGs, and that the prevailing approach to development assistance does not sufficiently recognize this fact. A key question is whether the country-ownership model is even compatible with global sustainability. A second key question is whether the political will exists to make the provision of GPGs an explicit and central objective of official development assistance especially in the face of objections from those who believe aid should be solely concerned with the eradication of poverty through national or community-level interventions. A third key question concerns the mobilization and use of resources for the World Bank s work to support the provision of GPGs. The Bank is a major player on many regional and global issues, but its work at these levels is usually enabled by donor contributions, most often in the form of grants, targeted for a particular purpose. International development assistance needs to undergo a major transition, such that it takes as an explicit and principal objective the provision of GPGs important for development. The World Bank can play a leadership role in this transition, working within new kinds of coalitions but not abandoning the fundamentals of its operating model. Some of the most important GPGs are provided through the separate and cumulative actions of multiple countries, so the challenge for the Bank is to find ways of investing strategically and sharing knowledge across countries, while keeping faith with their national development strategies, so as to achieve maximum global impacts. The World Bank can also play a unique role in stimulating the private provision of GPGs through risk-sharing and market creation."
The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan, primarily through productive and inclusive job creation. Using an "agricultural jobs lens" and multidimensional approach, this report explores the sector's direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment.
The seven million teachers of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are the critical actors in the region s efforts to improve education quality and raise student learning levels which lag far behind those of OECD and East Asian countries such as China. This book documents the high economic stakes around teacher quality, benchmarks the current performance of LAC s teachers and delineates the key issues. These include low standards for entry into teacher training, poor quality training programs that are detached from the realities of the classroom, unattractive career incentives, and weak support for teachers once they are on the job. New research conducted for this report in close to 15,000 classrooms in seven different LAC countries the largest cross-country study of this kind to date provides a first-ever insight into how the region s teachers perform inside the classroom. It documents that the average teacher in LAC loses the equivalent of one day of instructional time per week because of inadequate preparation, excessive time on administration (taking attendance, passing out papers) and a surprisingly high share of time physically absent from the classrooms where they should be teaching. Teachers also make limited use of available learning materials, especially ICT, and are unable to keep the majority of their students engaged. The book sets out the three priority lines of reform needed to produce great teachers in LAC: policies to recruit better teachers; programs to groom teachers and improve their skills once they are in service; and stronger incentives to motivate teachers to perform their best throughout their career. In every area, the book distills the latest evidence from inside and outside the region to provide practical guidance to policymakers in the design of effective programs and sustainable reforms. A final chapter analyzes the politics of recent major teacher reforms in Chile, Peru, Ecuador and Mexico -- chronicling the prominent role of teachers unions and the political and communications strategies that have underpinned successful reforms."
The publication presents the detailed results of the 2011 International Comparison Programme (ICP). The ICP is a worldwide statistical initiative that aims to estimate Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) to be used as currency converters to compare the size and price levels of economies around the world. The program involved 199 economies from eight geographic regions: Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Commonwealth of Independent States, Latin America, the Caribbean, Western Asia, Pacific Islands, and the countries of the regular PPP programme managed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat). The work reported herein was conducted by national implementing agencies that collected the necessary data in each economy; the regional coordination agencies that supported country activities, compiled the results and produced regional estimates; and the ICP Global Office, which coordinated and managed the work at the global level. The 2011 ICP results form a crucial information base for research in comparative analysis and policy making. They include PPPs and real expenditure values for GDP and its main aggregates for the reference year 2011 for 199 participating economies.
India has been one of the world s leading developing countries in providing electricity to both rural and urban populations. The country s rural energy policies and institutions have contributed greatly to reducing the number of people globally who continue to lack access to electricity. By late 2012, the national electricity grid had reached 92 percent of India s rural villages, about 880 million people. Yet, owing mainly to its large population, India still has by far the world s largest number of households without electricity. About 311 million people still live without electricity, and they mostly reside in poor rural areas. Among these, 200 million live in villages that already have electricity. Less than half of all households in the poorest income group have electricity. Even among households that have electric service, hundreds of millions lack reliable supply, experiencing power cuts almost daily. Achieving universal access to electricity by 2030 is not financially prohibitive for India. The challenge of providing electricity for all is achievable, ensuring that India joins such countries as China and Brazil in reaching out to even its remotest populations. The estimated annual investments necessary to reach universal access are in the range of Rs. 108 billion (US$2.4 billion) to Rs. 139 billion (US$3 billion). Considering that the country already spends about Rs. 45 billion ($1 billion) a year on new electricity lines through the current government program, the additional investments needed to achieve universal access by 2030 are quite reasonable. Investments are not the only hurdle to providing electricity to those presently without service. Policies will need to be aligned with the principles followed in other successful international programs. The potential benefits of electrification for those without service are quite high. The benefits of lighting alone would approximately equal the investments necessary to extend electricity for all. When households that adopt electricity switch from kerosene lamps to electric light bulbs, they experience an enormous price drop for lighting energy and can have more light for a range of household activities, including reading, studying, cooking, and socializing. Households with electricity consume more than 100 times as much light as households with kerosene for about the same amount of money. The potential value of the additional lighting can be as large as 11.5 percent of a typical household s monthly budget. If universal access is achieved by 2030, the cumulative benefit for improved lighting alone would equal about Rs. 3.8 trillion (US$69 billion) or Rs. 190 billion ($3.4 billion) in annual benefits. This is greater than the cost of providing electricity service, and does not even include such benefits as improved communications, household comfort, food preservation, and income from productive activities. With electric lighting, households can generate more income, and children can have better educational outcomes and income-earning potential. Without quality energy services, households often face entrenched poverty, poor delivery of social services, and limited opportunities for women and girls."
International Debt Statistics (IDS) 2014 is a continuation of the World Bank s publications Global Development Finance, Volume II (1997 through 2009) and the earlier World Debt Tables (1973 through 1996). IDS 2014 provides statistical tables showing the external debt of 128 developing countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt to the World Bank s Debtor Reporting System (DRS). It also includes tables of key debt ratios for individual reporting countries and the composition of external debt stocks and flows for individual reporting countries and regional and income groups along with some graphical presentations. IDS 2014 draws on a database maintained by the World Bank External Debt (WBXD) system. Longer time series and more detailed data are available from the World Bank open databases, which contain more than 200 time series indicators, covering the years 1970 to 2012 for most reporting countries, and pipeline data for scheduled debt service payments on existing commitments to 2019. International Debt Statistics 2014 is unique in its coverage of the important trends and issues fundamental to the financing of the developing world. This report is an indispensable resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community. In addition, International Debt Statistics will showcase the broader spectrum of debt data collected and compiled by the World Bank. These include the high frequency, quarterly external debt database (QEDS) and the quarterly public sector database (QPSD) developed in partnership with the International Monetary Fund and launched by the World Bank."
After more than three decades of average annual growth close to 10 percent, China's economy is transitioning to a "new normal" of slower but more balanced and sustainable growth. Its old drivers of growth - a growing labour force, the migration from rural areas to cities, high levels of investments, and expanding exports - are waning or having less impact. China's policy makers are well aware that the country needs new drivers of growth. Innovative China proposes a reform agenda that emphasizes productivity and innovation to help policy makers promote China's future growth and achieve their vision of a modern and innovative China. The reform agenda is based on the three Ds: Removing Distortions to strengthen market competition and enhance the efficient allocation of resources in the economy Accelerating Diffusion of advanced technologies and management practices in China's economy, taking advantage of the large remaining potential for catch-up growth Fostering Discovery and nurturing China's competitive and innovative capacity as China approaches OECD incomes in the decades ahead and extends the global innovation and technology frontier.
The share of people living in extreme poverty, as assessed by the international poverty line (currently set at USD$1.90 a day), has become one of the most prominent indicators for assessing global economic development. It has been a central indicator for the Millennium Development Goals and is now an important indicator among the Sustainable Development Goals. The World Bank's Poverty and Shared Prosperity series is the official source for the latest global estimates of poverty and shared prosperity. Each report also expands on a particular theme. As the world continues to make progress in eradicating poverty, efforts to monitor progress in reaching our goals will need to bring greater attention to ensuring that no one is left unaccounted for, that everyone counts - and the 2018 report explores the implications of this. Chapters 1 and 2 provide updates on the status of global poverty and the state of shared prosperity in the world. Chapter 3 examines the usefulness of a measure of societal poverty, which takes both absolute and relative aspects of deprivation into account above a certain income level. This measure provides a higher estimate of global poverty, which allows for the notion that participating in society may require more resources in richer countries. Chapter 4 puts forward a multidimensional index of global poverty that builds on the consumption-based measure by adding dimensions of well-being for which market prices largely do not exist, such as health and education. Chapter 5 addresses a key constraint in monitoring global poverty, namely, that the current state of data does not allow for the measurement of inequality within households. This chapter describes the first efforts to overcome this constraint, with the aim of improving our understanding of the individual-level characteristics of the poor through a focus on gender.
This year's Africa development indicators, which covers some 1,700 macroeconomic, sectoral, and human development indicators dating to the 1960s, comes at a critical time for Sub-Saharan Africa's 48 countries and 841 million people. After a decade of economic growth at nearly 5 percent a year, Africa-along with the rest of the world-was hit hard by the global economic crisis, but it rebounded within a year. In 2011 the continent's growth is expected to return to pre crisis levels. The poverty rate has been declining at about one percentage point a year, and progress on the millennium development goals, while insufficient to reach the 2015 targets in many countries, has been substantial. Yet, Africa faces some of the most formidable development challenges in the world. First, growth has been uneven, with about 20 fragile and conflict affected states seemingly trapped in persistent poverty. Second, economic growth has not translated to productive jobs and more earning opportunities for Africa's labor force-most of which is engaged in agriculture and informal enterprises-and especially for the 7-10 million young people entering the labor force each year. And third, Africa's growth could be faster and more widespread if it could address its most fundamental challenges-improving governance and increasing public sector capacity. A tool for learning, capacity strengthening, and accountability, Africa development indicators 2011 will continue to play a critical role in Africa's economic transformation.
This study-which includes a pilot intervention in Kenya-aims to further the state of knowledge about the emerging trend of disruptive agricultural technologies (DATs) in Africa, with a focus on supply-side dynamics. The first part of the study is a stocktaking analysis to assess the number, scope, trend, and characteristics of scalable disruptive technology innovators in agriculture in Africa. From a database of 434 existing DAT operations, the analysis identified 194 as scalable. The second part of the study is a comparative case study of Africa's two most successful DAT ecosystems in Kenya and Nigeria, which together account for half of Sub-Saharan Africa's active DATs. The objective of these two case studies is to understand the successes, challenges, and opportunities faced by each country in fostering a conducive innovation ecosystem for scaling up DATs. The case study analysis focuses on six dimensions of the innovation ecosystem in Kenya and Nigeria: finance, regulatory environment, culture, density, human capital, and infrastructure. The third part of the study is based on the interactions and learnings from a pilot event to boost the innovation ecosystem in Kenya. The Disruptive Agricultural Technology Innovation Knowledge and Challenge Conference in Nairobi, Kenya, brought together more than 300 key stakeholders from large technology companies, agribusiness companies, and public agencies; government representatives and experts from research and academic institutions; and representatives from financial institutions, foundations, donors, and venture capitalists. Scaling Up Disruptive Agricultural Technologies in Africa concludes by establishing that DATs are demonstrating early indications of a positive impact in addressing food system constraints. It offers potential entry points and policy recommendations to facilitate the broader adoption of DATs and improve the overall food system.
The World Bank's annual report on the external debt of developing countries includes comprehensive data for 125 developing countries, as well as summary data for regions and income groups. This year's edition of International Debt Statistics is designed to respond to user demand for timely, comprehensive data on trends in external debt in developing countries. As in previous years, IDS provides statistical tables showing the external debt of developing countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt to the World Bank's Debtor Reporting System (DRS). In addition, the publication showcases the broader spectrum of debt data collected and compiled by the World Bank. These include the high frequency, quarterly data for high-income economies and select developing countries reporting to the joint World Bank-IMF Quarterly External Debt Statistics (QEDS) and the Public Sector Debt Statistics (PSDS) database. Presentation and access to data have been rendered to improve the user experience.
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