Purchase includes free access to book updates online and a free
trial membership in the publisher's book club where you can select
from more than a million books without charge. Excerpt: Parma -
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Parma was already a built-up area
in the Bronze Age. It has verified by now that in the current
position of the city rose a terramare. The "terramare" (marl earth)
were ancient villages in structural wood on pile-dwelling built
according to a defined scheme and squared form, built on the dry
land, generally in proximity of the rivers. During this age (among
the 1500 BC and the 800 Be the first necropolises (placed where
stand the present-day Piazza Duomo and Millstone Square) rose also.
The city was most probably founded and named by the Etruscans, for
a parma (circular shield) was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman
terms for particular arms, and Parmeal, Parmni and Parmnial are
names that appear in Etruscan inscriptions. Diodorus Siculus (XXII,
2,2; XXVIII, 2,1) reported that the Romans had changed their
rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans.
Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round,
like a shield, or whether its situation was a shield against the
Gauls to the north, is uncertain. The Roman colony was founded in
183 BC, together with Mutina (Modena); 2000 families were settled.
Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia
and the Via Claudia. It had a forum, in what is today the central
Garibaldi Square. In 44 BC, the city was destroyed, and Augustus
rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia
for its loyalty to the imperial house. The city was subsequently
sacked by Attila, and later given by the barbarian king Odoacer to
his fellows. During the Gothic War, however, Totila destroyed it.
It was then part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (changing
name to Chrysopolis, "Golden City", probably due to the pre...
Books + Company
|Country of origin:
||152 x 229 x 2mm (L x W x T)
||Paperback - Trade
Is the information for this product incomplete, wrong or inappropriate?
Let us know about it.
Does this product have an incorrect or missing image?
Send us a new image.
Is this product missing categories?
Add more categories.
Review This Product
No reviews yet - be the first to create one!