High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles The Von Restorff effect,
also called the isolation effect, predicts that an item that
"stands out like a sore thumb" (called distinctive encoding) is
more likely to be remembered than other items. For instance, if a
person examines a shopping list with one item highlighted in bright
green, he or she will be more likely to remember the highlighted
item than any of the others. This distinctiveness may also come in
the form of humor, in which case the humor effect occurs.
Similarly, specific examples include the bizarreness effect and the
serial position effect. A cognitive bias is a pattern of deviation
in judgement that occurs in particular situations (see also
cognitive distortion and the lists of thinking-related topics).
Implicit in the concept of a "pattern of deviation" is a standard
of comparison; this may be the judgment of people outside those
particular situations, or may be a set of independently verifiable
facts. The existence of some of these cognitive biases has been
verified empirically in the field of psychology.
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