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Pages: 28. Chapters: Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Caspar David Friedrich,
Ernst Moritz Arndt, Carl Gustaf Wrangel, Lennart Torstenson, Hans
Karl von Winterfeldt, Philipp Otto Runge, Kurt Christoph Graf von
Schwerin, Christoph von Beezen, Arnold Ruge, Friedrich August von
Klinkowstrom, Hans Henric von Essen, Christof Beetz, Christian
Ehrenfried Weigel, Georg Friedrich Schomann, Frederick William von
Hessenstein, Nils Bielke, Thomas Thorild, Carl Gustav Rehnskiold,
Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten, Otto Wilhelm Konigsmarck, Axel Lillie.
Excerpt: Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 - May 7, 1840)
was a 19th-century German Romantic landscape painter, generally
considered the most important German artist of his generation. He
is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes which
typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night
skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. His primary
interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his
often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey a
subjective, emotional response to the natural world. Friedrich's
paintings characteristically set a human presence in diminished
perspective amid expansive landscapes, reducing the figures to a
scale that, according to the art historian Christopher John Murray,
directs "the viewer's gaze towards their metaphysical dimension."
Friedrich was born in the Swedish Pomeranian town of Greifswald,
where he began his studies in art as a youth. He studied in
Copenhagen until 1798, before settling in Dresden. He came of age
during a period when, across Europe, a growing disillusionment with
materialistic society was giving rise to a new appreciation of
spirituality. This shift in ideals was often expressed through a
reevaluation of the natural world, as artists such as Friedrich,
J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) and John Constable (1776-1...
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