This report presents the conclusions of an expert committee
commissioned to evaluate the safety for human consumption of
selected food additives and to establish acceptable daily intakes
for these substances. The committee also establishes specifications
for the identity and purity of food additives in order to make
certain that the materials subjected to toxicological testing are
adequately defined and correspond to the products in commerce.The
report opens with discussions of methodological issues relevant to
the safety assessment of food additives and contaminants. Noting
the increasing importance of intake assessments in risk evaluation,
the report provides detailed information on five methods used to
assess dietary intake of food additives. Potential sources of
uncertainty and variability associated with each method are also
identified and discussed. Other methodological issues considered
include principles governing the prediction of metabolism of
flavouring agents into innocuous products, policies for setting
microbiological criteria, especially for products of natural
origin, and the information required for evaluation of enzyme
preparations derived from genetically modified
microorganisms.Against this background, the second part of the book
provides succinct summaries of the toxicological data examined and
factors considered when evaluating selected substances and
allocating an acceptable daily intake. Evaluations are presented
for two enzyme preparations (a-acetolactate decarboxylase and
maltogenic amylase), three flavouring agents (trans-anethole,
furfural, and menthol), two food colours (curcumin and riboflavin
from genetically modified Bacillus subtilis), one group of glazing
agents (medium- and low-viscosity mineral oils), one group of
preservatives (sulfur dioxide and sulfites), one sweetening agent
(stevioside), three thickening agents (carrageenan, processed
Eucheuma seaweed, and enzymatically hydrolysed sodium carboxymethyl
cellulose), and three miscellaneous substances (g- cyclodextrin;
glucono-d-lactone and the calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium
salts of gluconic acid; and polyglycitol syrup).The third and most
extensive part presents conclusions about the safety of a large
number of flavouring agents evaluated according to a procedure
which integrates data on intake, in relation to human intake
thresholds, with information on structure-activity relations,
metabolism, and toxicity. The procedure facilitates the safety
evaluation of flavouring substances that have extremely low intake
but lack data on toxicity.The final part summarizes the results of
intake assessments conducted for five food additives: benzoates,
butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),
sulfites, and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). Annexed to the report
are tables summarizing the committee's recommendations for
acceptable daily intakes, changes in the status of specifications,
and further toxicological studies and other information required or
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