The security environment requires that deployed military units,
forward-based activities, and forward operating bases protect
themselves against threats designed to interrupt, interfere, or
impair the effectiveness of joint operations. Base and lines of
communications (LOCs) security must be properly planned, prepared,
executed, and assessed to prevent or mitigate hostile actions
against US personnel, resources, facilities, equipment, and
information. Joint security areas (JSAs) are increasingly
vulnerable to enemy forces with sophisticated surveillance devices,
accurate weapon systems, and transport assets capable of inserting
forces behind friendly combat formations. Threat activities can be
generally described and categorized in three levels. Each level or
any combination of levels may exist in the operational area,
independently or simultaneously. Typical Level I threats include
enemy agents and terrorists whose primary missions include
espionage, sabotage, and subversion. Enemy activity and individual
terrorist attacks may include random or directed killing of
military and civilian personnel, kidnapping, and/or guiding special
purpose individuals or teams to targets. Level II threats include
small-scale, irregular forces conducting unconventional warfare
that can pose serious threats to military forces and civilians.
These attacks can cause significant disruptions to military
operations as well as the orderly conduct of local government and
services. Level III threats may be encountered when a threat force
has the capability of projecting combat power by air, land, or sea,
anywhere into the operational area. Level III threats necessitate a
decision to commit a tactical combat force (TCF) or other
significant available forces to counter the threat. This threat
level is beyond the capability of base and base cluster defense and
response forces. A JSA is a specific surface area designated to
facilitate protection of bases. The size of a JSA may vary
considerably and is highly dependent on the size of the operational
area, mission essential assets, logistic support requirements,
threat, or scope of the joint operation. Base functions include
force projection, movement control, sustainment, command and
control. Base nodes are air bases, airfields, seaports, and sea
bases. This publication provides doctrine for planning and
executing operations to protect a JSA outside the homeland. It
outlines the JFC's responsibilities and discusses organizational
options, and command and control considerations across the range of
military operations. It focuses on JSO that are designed to protect
bases and LOCs that support joint operations.
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