The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program is a
cooperative effort by government, private industry, and academia to
apply advanced technology to the task of resolving the problems of
surface transportation. The objective is to improve travel
efficiency and mobility, enhance safety, conserve energy, provide
economic benefits, and protect the environment. The current demand
for mobility has exceeded the available capacity of the roadway
system. Because the highway system cannot be expanded, except in
minor ways, the available capacity must be used more efficiently to
handle the increased demand.
ITS applies advanced information processing, communication,
sensing, and computer control technologies to the problems of
surface transportation. Considerable research and development
efforts will be required to produce these new technologies and to
convert technologies developed in the defense and space programs to
solve surface transportation problems.
ITS has been subdivided into six interlocking technology areas.
This book addresses human factors concerns for four of these areas:
*" Advanced Traveler Information Systems" are a variety of systems
that provide real time, in-vehicle information to drivers regarding
navigation and route guidance, motorist services, roadway signing,
and hazard warnings.
*" Advanced Vehicle Control Systems" refer to systems that aid
drivers in controlling their vehicle particularly in emergency
situations and ultimately taking over some or all of the driving
*" Commercial Vehicle Operations" address the application of ITS
technologies to the special needs of commercial roadway vehicles
including automated vehicle identification, location,
weigh-in-motion, clearance sensing, and record keeping.
*" Advanced Traffic Management Systems" monitor, control and
manage traffic on streets and highways to reduce congestion using
vehicle route diversion, automated signal timing, changeable
message signs, and priority control systems.
Two technical areas are not specifically addressed in individual
chapters, but many aspects of them are covered in associated
*" Advanced Rural Transportation Systems" include systems that
apply ITS technologies to the special needs of rural systems and
include emergency notification and response, vehicle location, and
*" Advanced Public Transportation Systems" enhance the
effectiveness, attractiveness and economics of public
transportation and include fleet management, automated fare
collection, and real-time information systems.
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